Poster Session 2 is 3:50 – 5:00 pm in Memorial Auditorium.
56. ATP as an Allosteric Effector of Glutamate Dehydrogenase: Examining Glutamate and NADP+
Alexis Adrian, Elizabeth Asp, Emma Chandler, Audrey Long, Mentored by: Dr. David Mork
57. Polymerized Ionic Liquid Coatings for Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction of Short Chain Fatty Acids form Aqueous Solution
Andrew Holen, Mentored by: Dr. Jared L. Andreson; Iowa State University; Dr. Mark Jensen
58. Magnetic Properties of Thermal-Treated Al-Doped Goethite
Cameron Jenson, Joseph Stage, Mentored by: Dr. Thelma Berquó
59. Self-assembly of Micron-sized Polystyrene Colloids via Langmuir-Blodgett Technique for Highly Reproducible Fabrication of Large-area Gold Microcavity Arrays
Andre Schaum, Mentored by: Dr. Aravind Baride and Dr. P. Stanley May, University of South Dakota
60. Average Quantum Tunneling Times for a Singular Double-Barrier System
Christian Sorum, Kirk Ogdahl, Mentored by: Dr. Luiz Manzoni
61. Breaking the Grass Ceiling
Anika Bohmer, Joshua Prichard, Rosemary Breimhurst, Mentored by: Dr. Kenneth Foster
62. With Liberty and Justice for Most
Grant Klevgaard, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
63. Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Luke Krause, Callie Fagerstrom, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
64. Past and Present Accounts from the Dakota Uprising of 1862
Joshua Woodley, Sydney Weller, Ryan Liebenow, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
65. Religious Diversity and Liberty in the Pennsylvania Colony
Eric Wicklund, Laura Knott, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
66. Factors that Influence the Personal Relationship with God and Centrality of Religion in Minnesota Young Adult Catholics
Jacqueline Day, Mentored by: Dr. Mark Krejci
67. Breastfeeding Benefits: A Systematic Review of the Nursing and Allied Health Literature
Anna Durr, Molly Christensen, Mentored by: Dr. Jennifer DeJong
68. Pre-, Intra- and Post-Birth Customs in the Latino Community in Comparison of Customs Common in the United States
Emily Stevenson, Julia Brainard, Paige Kopka, Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
69. A Comparative Study of Contraceptives and Family Planning in Latin America and the United States
Shawna Pantzke, Annika Tureson, Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
70. Hitchcock’s Rear Window: The Marriage Debate Then and Now
Madylin Banken, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
71. Media Bias and Its Impact on Family Separation
Brianna Hawkins, Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
72. Red-Winged Blackbird Nest Size and Distance from Shoreline
Cole Guzman, Ryan VanMoer, Brooke MacLeod, Mentored by: Dr. Bryan Bishop
73. Bird Community Responses to Climate Change and Forest Management in a Red Pine Plot at Itasca State Park
Samuel Haley, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker, Dr. Althea ArchMiller
74. Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis to Determine Population Densities of Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) in Minnesota Prairie and Woodland Habitats
Elli Strand, Alexis Guttormson, Raelin Kronenberg, Rebecca Dahl, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
75. Comparative Analysis of Squirrel Behavior and Habitat Use in Light of Climate Change
Mollie Francis, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
76. Shoaling Preferences in Zebrafish
Emily Hilfers, Emily Hao, Yanick Tade, Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
77. Exploring Spatial Learning and Color Preferences of Zebrafish
Emma Allen, Megan Smith, Jacob Stephan, Taylor Zetocha, Nolan Christenson, Brandon Ciak, Lauryn Hinckley, Hannah Papenfuss, Sydney Lundebrek, Erik Lucken, Cole Hoscheid, Elizabeth Wager, Alison Amundson, Megan Blatti, Liliana Cannella, Hailey Pfau, Graham Remple
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
78. Suicide in the Elderly
Erik Lucken, Grant Eggers, Dakshya Karki, Mentored by: Dr. Philip Lemaster
79. Gender in Gymnastics: Changes & Challenges
Haylee Borgen, Mentored by: Dr. Mallary Allen, Dr. Karla Knutson
80. Shaming into Silence
Olivia Vergin, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
81. Me Too/Ni Una Menos – Sexual Violence in United States and Latin America
Rachel Nemer, Annika Mogck, Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
82. Femicide and Systemic Misogyny in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
Samuel Hermann, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
83. Native American Issues in the Era of Andrew Jackson
Ethan Holm, Kain Stevenson, Bethany Rennich, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
84. Examining Trends in Food Pantry Data from 2017-2019
Austin Grove, Faith James, Anna Norgard, Kylie Sollie, Brooke Swarthout, Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
85. The High Unemployment Rates of the Youth Population of Spain
Michelle Ziperovich, Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
86. The Effects of Urbanization on the Long Lake Research Station
Marley Lund, Skyler Klostriech, Sarah Schroeder, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
87. Place, Taste, and Waste: An Artistic Interpretation of the High Impact Leadership Trip to San Francisco
Alyssa Armstrong, Elaine Laliberte, Benjamin Paul, Stella Schminke, Emma Chandler, Lauren Nelson, Nolan Kern, Amina Fatkhulloeva, Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
88. Hypothetical Exhibition: “Exploring Culture: Filipino/a/x American Art”
Chelsea Steffes, Mentored by: Dr. Susan Lee
89. Nuclear Division Autonomy Mediated by Microtubules in Fungi Ashbya gossypii
Maison Grefe, Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller; Dr. Cori Anderson, Wesleyan University
90. Cultural Deviance and Vilifying Male Femininity in Hitchcock
Lewis Johnson, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
91. Freeing the Lady of Shallot from the House: Modernizing the Gender Roles of Victorian England
Margaret Noah, Mentored by: Dr. Dawn Duncan
92. La Desigualdad Entre los Generos en Mexico
Alexander Diaz, Mentored by: Dr Fanny Roncal
93. A Feminist Interpretation on Biblical Texts and Patriarchal Traditions in Christianity
Natalie Aakhus, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
94. Maintaining the Status Quo: Ambivalent Sexism and Response to Gender Stigma
Sarah Taylor, Sara Johnson, Mentored by: Dr. Darcie Sell
95. Links Between Maternal Parenting and the Homosexual Menace
Hailey Millner, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
96. Investigating the Pharmaceutical Incorporation of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid in a Series of Chitosan-Alginate Bioplastics
Kelly Noah, Mentored by: Dr. Graeme Wyllie
97. Analysis of Aspartame and its Effect on the Human Body
Sydney Bexell, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Strang, Dr. Meredith Wagner
98. The Traveling Salesman: Optimizing Concert Tours
Rebecca Twait, Julie Bittner, Mentored by: Dr. Julia Walk
99. Using Rhetoric: Filling in Taylor Swift’s “Blank Space”
McKenzie Lautt, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
100. KeyMIDI: Computer Keyboard Turned MIDI Controller, and a Music Making Artificial Intelligence
Tyler Malmberg, Mentored by: Damian Lampl
101. The Art of the Mind
Sarah Faber, Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
102. We All Go a Little Mad Sometimes: An Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho and Strangers on a Train
Matthew Weets, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
103. Psycho: A Pathway to Understanding
Klara Beinhorn, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
104. Impact of Local Food Pantries on Special Dietary Needs for Individuals with Chronic
Kayla Feigum, Rachel Tetlie, Luke Teigen, Tori Lee, Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
105. Cooking Equipment Needs of Food Pantry Clients in the Fargo-Moorhead Area
Emma Detloff, Megan Dondelinger, Ashley John, Kelly Riordan, Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
106. Hungry! Inquiry 100 taught by Dr. Barb Witteman
Emergency Food Pantry – Jenna Larsen
Emergency Food Pantry – Sutton Junkermeier
Bees – Kiara Stroh
$10 Meals – Nicole Lilleberg
Farmers’ Markets – Innocent Nsengiyumva
Share Tables – Morgan Kirwin
Food Waste – Rachel Friberg
107. Food Insecurity at Concordia College
Brooke Ankerfelt, Mentored by: Dr. Betty Larson
108. Social Isolation Influences Pro-Social Behaviour and Affects Oxytocin Expression in the PVN
Allegra Bentrim, Mentored by: Dr. Stefano Musardo and Dr. Camilla Bellone, University of Geneva; Dr. Mark Jensen
109. Cholinergic Involvement in Spatial Memory Retrieval in the Water Maze
Hailey Glewwe, Mentored by: Dr. Mikel Olson
110. Frontal Cortex Expression of Arc and Drd1a in Lupus-Prone Mice Following Passive Avoidance Learning
Isabelle Finholm, Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P56. ATP as an Allosteric Effector of Glutamate Dehydrogenase: Examining Glutamate and NADP+
Alexis Adrian, Elizabeth Asp, Emma Chandler, Audrey Long
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) uses the cofactor NADP+ to catalyze the transamination of glutamate forming α-ketoglutarate and ammonia. Mechanisms that metabolize, process, and excrete nitrogen are integral to the wellbeing of an organism and GDH is a central enzyme in these pathways. The focus of this study is allosteric regulation, or regulators that act on the enzyme outside the active site. ATP is a potential allosteric regulator of GDH isolated from E. coli, though its mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the goal of this study is to explore the allosteric effect of ATP on GDH; this is done by examining the effect on the Km, or binding affinity, for both glutamate and NADP+. A kinetic assay was run with a glutamate concentration gradient containing a constant amount of NADP+ in each sample and varying ATP concentrations; this examines the impact of ATP as an allosteric effector on the Km of glutamate. Next, the glutamate concentration was held constant and a NADP+ concentration gradient was used at various ATP concentrations to examine how ATP affects NADP+. This method will help elucidate how ATP allosterically affects glutamate dehydrogenase at the glutamate and NADP+ binding sites. The reaction was run in a spectrophotometer and the absorbances at 340nm were compared for glutamate and NADP+ concentrations. Analysis of the data was done using a Lineweaver-Burk plot to determine how Km values were impacted and the overall kinetic effect. Preliminary data suggests ATP is acting as an activator for both substrate binding sites.
Mentored by: Dr. David Mork
P57. Polymerized Ionic Liquid Coatings for Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction of Short Chain Fatty Acids form Aqueous Solution
Short chain fatty acids are fatty acids ranging from two to seven carbons. They are produced from dietary fibers in the colon and are involved in diverse physiological roles in bodily functions mainly involving organs of the digestive system. Analytical procedures based on headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) paired with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been developed for the determination of these acids in aqueous solution. Four different SPME fibers (three polymerized ionic liquid fibers and a commercial polyacrylate fiber) were examined to determine the relative extraction efficiencies for each. The method used for sample preparation followed previous studies, adjusting the pH to ensure the protonation of each fatty acid. Calibration curves were created with each fiber over a range of 1-500 µg/L for each of eight short chain fatty acids. PIL fiber #3, a zwitterionic monomer with an ionic crosslinker, consistently displayed the highest extraction efficiency for each of the eight target analytes while displaying excellent linearity. Percent RSD values (n=3) ranged from 3.7% to 70.2% for all fibers with PIL fiber #2 (a zwitterionic monomer with a neutral crosslinker) producing the lowest values, but was comparable with PIL fiber #3 and the commercial PA fiber.
Mentored by: Dr. Jared L. Andreson; Iowa State University; Dr. Mark Jensen
P58. Magnetic Properties of Thermal-Treated Al-Doped Goethite
Cameron Jenson, Joseph Stage
The magnetic properties of goethite doped with aluminum were analyzed throughout various phases of thermal treatment using the technique of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Goethite is an antiferromagnetic iron oxide which transitions directly to hematite after a certain degree of thermal treatment. Our initial samples included six different concentrations of Al doped goethite, 0, 4, 8, 10, 12, and 16% which were aged at 70°C for 17 days. In addition to the initial samples before thermal treatment, Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed after three separate thermal treatments to observe various stages along the transition to hematite. The thermal treatment included exposure to 200°C for 336 and 672 hours during which the goethite would likely not completely transition, as well as one hour at 350°C to ensure 100% conversion to hematite would occur even with the presence of aluminum.
Mentored by: Dr. Thelma Berquó
P59. Self-assembly of Micron-sized Polystyrene Colloids via Langmuir-Blodgett Technique for Highly Reproducible Fabrication of Large-area Gold Microcavity Arrays
Nanosphere lithography (NSL) spans a wide variety of techniques for producing 2D arrays of hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) spheres (typically polystyrene, PS), which act as masks for subsequent fabrication. Our interests are in using these HCP masks on smooth gold substrates to produce large-area (≥ cm2) gold microcavity arrays (AuMCAs) via electrochemical deposition. We have previously shown that AuMCAs are effective enhancers of NIR-to-visible upconversion emission from lanthanide-doped nanoparticles. However, difficulties were encountered in using published NSL techniques to reproducibly generate large areas of the PS masks with high-quality, long-range order. Here, we describe the development of a NSL technique utilizing a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough to quickly and reproducibly generate high-quality HCP masks with dimensions ≥10 cm2. The technique is based on carefully controlled introduction of the PS onto the air-water interface using an inclined “ramp”. The pressure at the water surface is adjusted such that the HCP array of spheres is formed spontaneously as the spheres enter the water layer from the ramp. The parameters for the method were developed first at the petri-dish scale and then adapted to the LB trough. The free-standing monolayers were deposited onto hydrophilic gold substrates through automated LB software and monolayer quality was assessed using optical microscopy. This technique was shown to consistently provide large (≥10 cm2) HCP masks of the PS with a high level of reproducibility and automation. Masked substrates were then subjected to electrochemical plating to produce large-area AuMCAs to be used as enhancing substrates for lanthanide ion-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs).
Dr. Aravind Baride and Dr. P. Stanley May, University of South Dakota
P60. Average Quantum Tunneling Times for a Singular Double-Barrier System
Christian Sorum, Kirk Ogdahl
Finding a definition for the time it takes for a particle to tunnel has been a controversial topic in the field of quantum mechanics since the early 1960’s. In recent years, experimental research has shown that quantum tunneling does take time, as opposed to occurring instantaneously. A distribution of quantum tunneling times was calculated for two systems comprised of a Gaussian wave packet interacting with two successive barriers. The first system had barriers represented by the Dirac delta function, and the second had barriers represented by the derivative of the Dirac delta function. The Salecker-Wigner-Peres quantum clock was used to obtain an average for the tunneling times. The results were analyzed against the predicted outcomes according to the generalized Hartman effect, and the average tunneling times calculated showed no indication of this effect.
Mentored by: Dr. Luiz Manzoni
P61. Breaking the Grass Ceiling
Anika Bohmer, Joshua Prichard, Rosemary Breimhurst
Over the course of the past century, the United States’ relationship with marijuana has changed vastly: it has been restricted, criminalized, and regulated. Since 2012, 11 states as well as the District of Columbia have fully legalized marijuana, yet it remains illegal at the federal level. This project seeks to illuminate the complexities of community perceptions regarding recreational and medicinal marijuana use. The research will seek to uncover whether or not there are any significant correlations that appear between demographics such as age, occupation, political affiliation, and the use and legalization of marijuana. Through academic research as well as surveying and interviewing of community members of different backgrounds, we hope to uncover an accurate and reliable picture of the Fargo-Moorhead community’s perception of medicinal and recreational marijuana use, instead of relying on media’s portrayal of marijuana and those who use it. On a larger scale, we hope that our findings will aid policymakers in producing legislation that accurately reflects their constituents. Additionally, our findings are relevant to students at Concordia College as they responsibly engage in informed discourse surrounding marijuana use in our community as well as in a more global context.
Mentored by: Dr. Kenneth Foster
P62. With Liberty and Justice for Most
The United States has quite a few issues at the moment. But, one issue that has been present since before the birth of America has been that of race. From slavery to Jim Crow, and even to today, the United States have seemingly been in a perpetual struggle against itself simply based on skin color. One area where inequality is still glaringly apparent is the criminal justice system. Even though Manny in The Wrong Man is not black, he faces the same problems and unfair treatment many African Americans still face today. In The Wrong Man, Hitchcock explores the process of being jailed unfairly for a crime that the main character, Manny, may or may not have committed. This subject is clearly an important one for Hitchcock, because his usual humor and wit are absent in this film and replaced by a dark and serious tone. Hitchcock’s usual trope of having the police in his films be incompetent is also traded out for a more menacing image of police in America. In a way, Hitchcock’s grim depiction of how the justice system can ruin someone’s life is just as relevant today as it was in 1956. Hitchcock’s depiction of a flawed justice system to the unjust justice system today, as well as Manny’s situation are similar to that of minorities in today’s criminal justice system.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P63. Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Luke Krause, Callie Fagerstrom
Differences of political ideology are as old as the country itself. The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 revealed a deep divide within the country regarding immigration and the constitutionality of public opposition to the government. Our research looks into the profound political and ideological divide between Federalists and Democratic Republicans. This topic is not new to historians, but we believe it is timely and important to show how dangerous it is when political differences are labeled as foreign and un-American. We used the Concordia library, scholarly databases, and credible websites to find sources containing information on the Alien and Sedition Acts, political parties, and relevant historical context for this controversial legislation. Parallels between the tense political climate of the 1790s and the contemporary political climate in American society make this an important topic.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P64. Past and Present Accounts from the Dakota Uprising of 1862
Joshua Woodley, Sydney Weller, Ryan Liebenow
This project looks at White European and Native American perspectives regarding the Dakota Conflict of 1862. This will allow the audience to hear Native American perspectives about the war alongside the long dominant white narrative. Our group argues that fuller historical understanding is only achieved through examination of multiple perspectives. To support this claim our group is doing a memory project looking at primary sources from 1860 to present-day. These primary sources will encapsulate the feelings and opinions of both Natives and Whites. We examine how these perspectives changed through time. Secondary sources and historical websites will be used to provide background information on the roots of the Dakota Conflict. This project hits close to home for current residents of Minnesota and North Dakota, providing information and perspective that may serve to challenge White memories.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P65. Religious Diversity and Liberty in the Pennsylvania Colony
Eric Wicklund, Laura Knott
William Penn imagined a colony built on religious and political liberties, where all could freely practice their religions as their conscience dictated. Penn’s promises of religious freedom and land attracted many different religious groups, including Protestant Germans who were persecuted in Europe. Research on religious liberty in colonial and early America has focused on mostly English speaking congregations and sources, with little scholarship on German speaking sources. Our research sheds light on how these founding principles fostered the creation of religious havens that encouraged cultural and religious diversity that had a lasting impact in Pennsylvania and elsewhere. Through traditional library sources, historical databases and websites, we discovered how German speaking communities in Pennsylvania, such as Lancaster, lived out a real vision of religious liberty and provide an early model for contemporary work on interfaith cooperation. Additionally, religious and cultural diversity of the colony laid a foundation for a continued history of diversity in Pennsylvania and states farther west as settlers migrated west into the Midwest in the 19th century. Notions of religious liberty expressed in the colony’s foundation continue to be important in connection with ongoing efforts to implement both religious freedom and religious understanding in our society.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P66. Factors that Influence the Personal Relationship with God and Centrality of Religion in Minnesota Young Adult Catholics
Young adults are leaving the Catholic Church and this research explores why that might be. When one’s personal relationship with God and centrality of religion are high there is a greater indication that their faith is stronger. Some factors that might influence the strength of those scores is faith depth, religious engagement, and religious emphasis. Participants were from the Crookston diocese in Minnesota, and 313 participants were surveyed. Results found faith depth and religious engagement significant for both personal relationship with God and centrality of religion. Religious emphasis was significant for centrality of religion. Parents do not play an important role in impacting their children’s relationship with God. These factors will help identify areas to improve young adult Catholics religiosity.
Mentored by: Dr. Mark Krejci
P67. Breastfeeding Benefits: A Systematic Review of the Nursing and Allied Health Literature
Anna Durr, Molly Christensen
There are many known benefits of breastfeeding, some of which have lifelong effects. Nurses working with mothers and newborns should understand these benefits and be able to educate mothers and other caregivers regarding them. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic developmental, psychological, social, economic, and environmental benefits of human milk (Anatolitou, 2012). The exclusive breastfeeding rate among newborns in 2015 was 83% but declined to 58% at six months of age. Unfortunately, in the United States, at 12 months of age this further declines to 36% (CDC, 2018). Therefore, it is important to educate mothers on breastfeeding benefits and pursue additional research.
Mentored by: Dr. Jennifer DeJong
P68. Pre-, Intra- and Post-Birth Customs in the Latino Community in Comparison of Customs Common in the United States
Emily Stevenson, Julia Brainard, Paige Kopka
The care of women before, during, and after pregnancy is crucial for the health and livelihood of babies. Birth is the start of our lives and therefore deeply embellished in the culture of our communities. With different cultures, comes different customs, stories, beliefs, and old wives tales. In healthcare, incorporating someone’s culture in their plan of care is one of the most important aspects of holistic care. With the ever changing dynamics of the United States, and the growing Latino population, it is important that we learn about their culture and belief system so that we can properly care for them. We propose to research different Latina prenatal, intranatal, and postnatal customs in comparison to the customs of the United States in order to more completely understand how to better care for this population in the realm of Obstetrics.
Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
P69. A Comparative Study of Contraceptives and Family Planning in Latin America and the United States
Shawna Pantzke, Annika Tureson
The availability and use of contraceptives and family planning in the the Spanish speaking parts of the world is greatly varied. A strong history of “machismo” and Roman Catholic influence has prevented Latin Americans from having higher access to family planning and contraceptives in the past, which remains a cultural barrier today. The gradual improvement in accessibility of family planning has shown a decrease in domestic violence and an overall improvement in women’s health. Despite improvements in some Spanish speaking countries, there is still a culture of isolation for women seeking reproductive health services. Women are often left without options and do not have much control over their own body and childbearing. In this study, we will compare family planning methods and accessibility in the United States and Latin America through a cultural lens.
Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
P70. Hitchcock’s Rear Window: The Marriage Debate Then and Now
Alfred Hitchcock’s film Rear Window follows the story of L.B. Jeffries, a photojournalist, as he entertains himself after he was injured photographing a racecar collision, leaving him wheelchair bound in his apartment. Jeffries’s main form of entertainment is watching his neighbors through the rear window of his apartment. This acts as a distraction for him from his relationship concerns with his girlfriend Lisa Fremont, played by Grace Kelly. His concerns are focused on the merits of marriage and whether or not he wants to marry her. Throughout the film, Jeffries watches a number of his neighbors, each of which represent the possible futures of his relationship with Lisa. Jeffries also verbally speaks about his hesitation in marrying her. This combination of imagery and dialogue work together to portray a particular view of marriage. But as this film was released in 1954, 65 years ago, views of marriage have changed. An analysis of the marriage views and standards of the time the film was released compared with the views and standards of marriage today can help to paint a picture of how audiences today react to the film. This investigation will answer the question of, if this film were made today, how would Jeffries’ concerns have been different? The analysis will focus on gender roles, divorce rates, education, and financial independence.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P71. Media Bias and Its Impact on Family Separation
Bias impacts the way people view important issues such as family separation at the southern border and how the United States has attempted to solve it. In large, Americans have differing opinions on immigration, some of which were brought upon by biased media sources. My research explores what bias in the media looks like, how it impacts family separation, and repercussions of the biased information. Media bias only contributes in a negative way to the stigma of immigrants already created from decades ago. There are many misconceptions about family separation floating around the news that it is almost impossible to know what to believe. My poster explores this issue in depth with facts and fallacies of family separation.
Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
P72. Red-Winged Blackbird Nest Size and Distance from Shoreline
Cole Guzman, Ryan VanMoer, Brooke MacLeod
We performed this study to test the relationship between the nest size of a redwing blackbird and if it related to how far away the nest was from the shoreline. We hypothesized that the nests closer to shore would be smaller in size and the nests farther away from the shoreline would be larger because of the lack of terrestrial predation. In addition, using GIS we wished to determine if male territories could be determined by spatial arrangement of nests. This study could assist in better understanding the redwing blackbird, and also add more data to a study that was previously done in BIOL 221. For our experiment, we waded into the marsh to systematically look for blackbird nests. Upon finding one, we marked its location on a GPS with the Collector application on our phones as well as measured its dimensions and distances from the water surface. After finding all of our nests, we used ArcGIS Online to measure the distance of the points from shore to determine if a correlation existed between nest size and distance from shore. In addition we performed a cluster analysis to determine if nests clustered, possibly indicating different territories of male birds. We found that although there was a slight relationship between distance from shore and nest size, we could not reject our null hypothesis. These findings suggest that there could be other reasons for varying nest sizes, not just distance from shore. We did find nests tended to cluster, which may indicate territories of males. This would need to be confirmed by observing males during the breeding season.
Mentored by: Dr. Bryan Bishop
P73. Bird Community Responses to Climate Change and Forest Management in a Red Pine Plot at Itasca State Park
We used a combination of meta-analysis and primary data to analyze the response of 54 species of male breeding birds to climate and management changes through time in a red pine (Pinus resinosa) plot at Itasca State Park. Breeding bird census data was collected in approximately the same location beginning with an initial survey in 1980, through four surveys during the 1990s, and most recently in 2018. Our objective was to quantify breeding bird responses to changes in the local climate and forest management actions. Bird counts were conducted on 68 gridpoints (1980; 12.75 ha) or 55 gridpoints (1990-2018; 10 ha) for approximately 10 minutes at each survey gridpoint. Bird point counts were then repeated five to eight times per growing season in years 1980, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1997, and 2018. We also measured habitat data such as tree diameter and species, woody shrub stem counts, and understory and overstory cover, and we collected historic climate data from the Weather Service. We found that 10 surveyed bird species (18.5%) increased in abundance, 1 (1.9%) decreased in abundance, and 43 (79.6%) did not change through time. The Black-throated Green Warbler, which breeds in mature conifer forests in Minnesota, declined in abundance, whereas species such as Red-eyed Vireo and Chestnut-sided Warbler increased in abundance. This may be related to the decline of the mature red pines in this forest and the shrubby understory encroachment as this plot succeeds from planted coniferous to mixed hardwood forest.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker, Dr. Althea ArchMiller
P74. Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis to Determine Population Densities of Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) in Minnesota Prairie and Woodland Habitats
Elli Strand, Alexis Guttormson, Raelin Kronenberg, Rebecca Dahl
White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and deer mice (P. maniculatus) are two morphologically similar species commonly found in Minnesota. These species are important indicators of climate and habitat instability as well as carriers of harmful diseases. Researchers have documented ecological replacement of deer mice by white-footed mice. In the past, morphological measurements were used to differentiate the species, but due to progressive overlap of measurements, they have proven unreliable. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis, a technique in which specific amylase allozymes of species are separated, is more accurate and reliable to differentiate the species. Saliva samples were collected from restored and remnant prairies and woodlands in Minnesota (2004-2018). Samples were prepared and stamped onto cellulose acetate plate for analysis, and starch agarose was poured onto the plates followed by a rinse of iodine solution to visualize protein bands. Samples were identified to species by relative migration of saliva proteins during electrophoresis. Densities of the species fluctuated year-to-year between 2004-2013, making the species vulnerable to ecological replacement. However, there is no evidence that ecological replacement is currently occurring in Minnesota forested or prairie habitats. Monitoring habitat changes of these species is important as shifts in distribution may affect the spread of disease and pest control in the region as well as serve as indicators of climate change. Tracking distribution also provides information on how climate change is impacting habitats. Continued research is necessary to understand the best method of identification and the long-term impact of the shifting distributions of Peromyscus.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P75. Comparative Analysis of Squirrel Behavior and Habitat Use in Light of Climate Change
Climate change is expected to result in the alteration of current species behaviors, space use, and distribution patterns. Minnesota has been documented to be one of the fastest warming states. Our project seeks to analyze different behaviors and differential habitat use of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and how those behaviors change based on weather conditions, which we hope to extrapolate to predict the potential results of climate change. This is a longitudinal study looking at weather data in the Fargo/Moorhead area over a period of ten years, and then compared to squirrel behaviors and habitat use on Concordia’s Campus. Behaviors and habitat use data of squirrels have been compiled since 2014, in an ongoing research study. To date, we have we have captured 82 squirrels and have 784 location observations. Our hypothesis is that campus squirrels will alter their behavior and space use as our climate continues to change (as measured through behavioral, habitat use, and temperature comparisons). The results of this research study indicate that as weather patterns become more extreme, both in terms of heat and cold, the eastern gray and American red squirrels are less likely to be seen forging and caching. Additionally, behavioral mating changes have been observed, with mating occurring earlier than previously recorded in Minnesota. Thus our observations and data imply that climate change will cause alternations in current patterns of behavior and habitat use, and may alter timing of reproduction.
Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P76. Shoaling Preferences in Zebrafish
Emily Hilfers, Emily Hao, Yanick Tade
Danio rerio (zebrafish), are small, active freshwater fish employed across many areas of neuroscience research. Readily accessible and relatively easy to maintain in the laboratory, zebrafish share many features with mammalian models, and their curiosity and learning ability make them a useful model in behavioral neuroscience research. Lines of commercially available genetically modified Danio called GloFish® are popular as pets in the United States for their striking fluorescence under UV light, but are a prohibited GMO in some countries. We were interested in comparing environmental preferences and shoaling behavior in wild-type and GloFish® Danio and to determine whether social housing conditions affect their behavior. Wild-type and GloFish® Danio were housed as homogeneous or heterogeneous groups prior to measuring time spent in a variety of environmental and social interaction condition dyads. Data were recorded using the Ethovision behavioral tracking system. We found an effect of social housing arrangement on environmental and social interaction preferences and will share analyses of these differences.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P77. Exploring Spatial Learning and Color Preferences of Zebrafish
Emma Allen, Megan Smith, Jacob Stephan, Taylor Zetocha, Nolan Christenson, Brandon Ciak, Lauryn Hinckley, Hannah Papenfuss, Sydney Lundebrek, Erik Lucken, Cole Hoscheid, Elizabeth Wager, Alison Amundson, Megan Blatti, Liliana Cannella, Hailey Pfau, Graham Remple, Benjamin Swanson
Danio rerio are a species of zebrafish increasingly used for research because of their similar neurological characteristics to humans and other mammals, making them a valuable model organism. It has been shown that Danio have a preference for spending time with other fish than being in isolation; the color green compared to red, blue, or yellow; and for swimming near a mirror compared to an empty tank. Our group was interested in using color, food, and social preferences to measure spatial learning in Danio. A 7-gallon fish tank was divided into three sections — a preferred side, a neutral zone, and a non-preferred side. The preferred side had a mirror, green colored paper, and other fish. The neutral zone was in the middle of the tank, separated from the non-preferred side by a barrier with one opening. The neutral zone contained food, acting as a motivator for the fish to cross into it from the non-preferred, empty part of the tank. We predicted fish would cross from the non-preferred side of the tank through the opening in the clear barrier to the neutral zone, and in subsequent trials, take less time to negotiate the barrier. We measured the time it took individual Danio to cross from the non-preferred side of the tank to the neutral zone when presented food, and the time spent near the green portion of the tank containing a mirror and small group of tank mates.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P78. Suicide in the Elderly
Erik Lucken, Grant Eggers, Dakshya Karki
Depression is a major cause for suicide. Of the many reasons for depression, loneliness and lack of support are [some of the most] significant causal factors. Add to this physical illnesses, problems with daily life activities, and the isolation elderly people may face later in life, and elderly suicide should no longer be a foreign concept to us. In reality, elderly suicide is one of the leading causes of death amongst people over sixty years old that is prevalent in both individualistic and collectivistic societies. Signs of depression such as lethargy, decreased mobility, and loss of interest are often mistaken as normal signs of aging in the elderly and hence, unidentified. There also exists a great gender disparity amongst elderly suicide victims, with men being more likely to kill themselves and in much more violent ways. In spite of strong evidence and data supporting this, research and public knowledge on this topic still remains few. To understand the reasonings behind all these factors as well as to come up with solutions, this topic needs to be researched. Moreover, as the elderly population is predicted to increase in the coming years this situation can only get graver. For these reasons, elderly suicide should be a highly researched topic and awareness amongst the general public is just as important.
Mentored by: Dr. Philip Lemaster
P79. Gender in Gymnastics: Changes & Challenges
The purpose of this research is to observe and examine differences regarding gender in the sport of gymnastics. Interactions taking place, and discussion of the sport in general, has been significantly impacted by the recent increasing act of sexualization. Additionally, sexual assault allegations of USA Gymnastics doctor Larry Nassar have resulted in various questions, speculations, and complications within the sport and the USA Gymnastics institution itself. Using ethnographic research and a literature review of preexisting studies, I attempt to situate the interactions of a local gymnastics facility in the context of gymnastics on a larger, national scale. After extensive field analysis, I propose an overarching ‘coach to athlete’ theme was discovered– relevant to the timeliness of the Nassar conviction in connection to gender roles and interactions. This theme regards somewhat of a revolution; calling attention to 1) new rules, regulations, and protocols that must be followed by coaching staff, and 2) a paradox experienced by numerous coaches attempting their job to the best of their ability.
Mentored by: Dr. Mallary Allen
P80. Shaming into Silence
My research was inspired by the recent emergence of the #MeToo movement in the midst of an overwhelming number of sexual assault accusations in the past couple years. Most cases are controversial, with some people siding with the victim and others with the perpetrator. American rape culture’s tendency to shame and blame victims of sexual assault is found in many aspects of U.S. society and can prevent victims from disclosing their experiences and receiving the help they need to heal, creating long-lasting trauma that permeates throughout their entire lives. My research drew from a variety of fields looking at sexual assault, namely psychology, sociology, feminism, and law. These disciplines looked at different aspects of how rape culture operates in American society and what negative effects it has on victims. I found that the United States has alarming rates of sexual assault, and any time a new report of it arises in the news, there is an uproar of public scrutiny shaming and blaming the victim. This negative backlash harms the victim and prevents them from speaking out and seeking the help they need to heal from their trauma. My findings indicate the need for changing the way American society talks about and handles sexual assault.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
P81. Me Too/Ni Una Menos – Sexual Violence in United States and Latin America
Rachel Nemer, Annika Mogck
The definition of sexual violence, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a sexual act committed against someone without that person’s freely given consent. This includes, but is not limited to: completed or attempted forced penetration of a victim by any means, unwanted sexual contact, and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences. The hashtag #MeToo was created in 2006 by a woman named Tarana Burke, focusing on helping survivors and ending sexual violence, directed mostly towards African American women and girls from low-wealth communities. By creating this hashtag, it has helped bring awareness world-wide, most popularly in the United States and Latin America, in hopes to raise money, support survivors, and ultimately end sexual violence. The hashtag #MeToo became popular in the United States in 2017, after the Harvey Weinstein Hollywood scandal. The powerful women in this community that stepped forward to talk about the mistreatment from the Oscar-winning producer gave confidence to others through social media platforms to raise their voices, making the movement stronger than it ever has been. In Latin America, the hashtag translates to #niunamenos, meaning “not one less”. This is a way to sentence that it is unacceptable to continue counting women murdered because they are women or dissident bodies and to indicate which is the object of that violence. Latin America believes in “machismo” which is essentially men and their manhood, which is the main reason for sexual violence. The people created #niunamenos by transforming mourning into power, in hopes to end sexual violence in their country.
Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
P82. Femicide and Systemic Misogyny in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
Beginning in 1993, young women have been disappearing in numbers disproportionate to the population of Ciudad Juarez, located on the U.S.-Mexican border. Some of these women are never found, others are found days, weeks, months later, brutally murdered and often raped. This, what has been called a “femicide,” is considered to be ongoing in 2018. The goal of this research project was to get to the bottom of what caused this increase in misogynist killings beginning in the early 1990s. The research included looking at a variety of academic sources, journal articles, statistical analyses, and local/national news sources. The novel 2666 by Chilean author Roberto Bolano also served as a framework and starting point for my research, although it was not used as a scholarly resource. It was found that failure of authorities to exercise due diligence, negligence of the Mexican government to recognize gender-based discrimination, as well as long cemented socio-cultural factors all play a role in the femicides in Ciudad Juarez. Understanding these intersecting facets allowed the blame to be placed on systemic, rather than individual misogyny, as the primary cause for these murders.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
P83. Native American Issues in the Era of Andrew Jackson
Ethan Holm, Kain Stevenson, Bethany Rennich
Our research project looks at critical issues during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. We focus primarily on Jackson’s Indian Removal Act leading to the Trail of Tears. Jackson’s removal policy significantly changed the course of the United States. We maintain that the Indian Removal Act set the nation’s history down a path that it never should have followed. Our research combined traditional historical sources in the library along with websites and digital media. We anticipate acquiring information that will support our initial knowledge of the horrors of Jackson’s policy, along with learning information that was previously unknown to us. History had continually shown that citizens can be (sometimes without trying) ignorant towards the issues that the Natives faced. For example, the atrocities faced by the Natives and barely touched upon in most elementary/high school history classes. Also, President Trump tweeted out a message mocking Elizabeth Warren, with a more than likely reference towards the Trail of Tears. This is just an example of the fact the most Americans are not adequately aware of the significance and seriousness of certain events in history involving Native Americans.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P84. Examining Trends in Food Pantry Data from 2017-2019
Austin Grove, Faith James, Anna Norgard, Kylie Sollie, Brooke Swarthout
Objective: To analyze and compare the results of the food pantry surveys administered in the years 2017-2019 to see how the food pantries in Fargo and Moorhead are meeting the needs of the community. Methods: Surveys were administered to clients at the Emergency Food Pantry and the Dorothy Day Food Pantry for four days in the springs of 2017-2019. The surveys were 42 questions in length and asked various demographic, food, and nutrition-related questions. Trends of these responses were analyzed based on change over time. Results: Compared to 2017 and 2018, a larger number of clients in 2019 reported not receiving fruits and vegetables to meet their needs. Similarly, a significant increases in the percentage of clients reporting a lack of access to drinkable water was noted over the three years. In regard to foods to accommodate special diets, individuals consistently agreed that the food pantries offered enough resources for special diets. Conclusion: Education on where and how to access affordable, fresh produce could help food pantry clients meet their fruit and vegetable needs. In regard to the need for clean water, food pantries could provide bottled water, water filters, information on water handling, or information on public water facilities. Pantries should continue their efforts to meet the needs of their clients with special diets.
Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
P85. The High Unemployment Rates of the Youth Population of Spain
The significance of the research is to see how the Spanish youth have struggled to get a job and opportunities when finishing a degree, just like it has happened around the world today.
This research does an analysis on the effects that the economic recession of 2008 has had on Spanish youth of today, when it comes to having employment opportunities and a future. The percentage of unemployment has grown to a 14% and many college graduates have decided to immigrate to other countries to obtain experience and opportunities that their own country does not offer. This research is based on scholarly sources as well as interviews with Spanish citizens.
Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
P86. The Effects of Urbanization on the Long Lake Research Station
Marley Lund, Skyler Klostriech, Sarah Schroeder
Around the globe, humans have impacted habitats threatening biodiversity. Habitat fragmentation compromises habitats and can alter ecosystem processes. Housing development has been shown to limit habitat use, decrease population size, and lower species diversity of many plants and animals. We examined reclaimed homestead sites for long-term impacts to habitat. In our experiment, we looked at the canopy density of different plots of land in areas that previously had homesteads and those that did not. The purpose of this was to see if the plots of land that were previous homesteads had a significantly less tree canopy. We tested this using a forest densiometer measuring 36 total locations at each of four plots, two former homesteads and two areas In the end of our experiment we without former homesteads. We performed a t-test to compare former homesteads with areas that did not have homesteads. Our hypothesis was supported that former homestead plots had a significantly less tree coverage than those of undeveloped land. In conclusion, our study indicates that while current housing development clearly impacts the ecosystems, these ecosystem alterations can be long-lasting, even decades after reclamation of the habitat.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P87. Place, Taste, and Waste: An Artistic Interpretation of the High Impact Leadership Trip to San Francisco
Alyssa Armstrong, Elaine Laliberte, Benjamin Paul, Stella Schminke, Emma Chandler, Lauren Nelson, Nolan Kern, Amina Fatkhulloeva
High Impact Leadership Trips are student-designed and student-led trips that occur over mid-semester breaks and which focus on some element of sustainability. On this HILT to San Francisco, we looked at the intersections of art, activism, and environmentalism. Through this work, the associations of geography and sustainability, that of place and presence, became both apparent and intriguing. While these features can be seen throughout much of our trip, they can be best illustrated through our culinary experiences. In some places, vegan food and strawless drink items were readily available. In others places, the request of water without straws was given a double take. Some places had compost bins available. Other places neglected recycling entirely, having only receptacles for trash. Some places sourced local foods and maintained fair trade agreements. Others less so. While this is a small peek into the larger realm of sustainability, what we eat, how we eat, where we eat it, what conversations we have while eating, and what becomes of the food that is not eaten are all valid questions to consider and address. Throughout this experience, the group attempted to minimize/eliminate food waste, eat vegetarian, and be conscious of our carbon footprint. Food is a unique facet of sustainability, one that enables us to shape and be shaped by the world simultaneously. This artwork stands as one account of our travels, a road map of place, taste, and waste.
Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
P88. Hypothetical Exhibition: “Exploring Culture: Filipino/a/x American Art”
This is a hypothetical art exhibition created for showing at the Plains Art Museum in Fargo, ND. This exhibition seeks to “fill in the gaps” of representation of ethnic minorities present in the United States, particularly in the Midwest region. To fulfill this, an exhibition of Filipino/a/x American artists has been curated to be displayed in this hypothetical exhibition, showcasing not just a variety of 2D and 3D visual art but also, poetry, video, and dance as well. Additionally, along with the exhibition, museum programming consisting of classes, workshops, community events, and artists talks have also been created as well to demonstrate how the exhibition would contribute to the local community and to encourage community growth. The goals of this research are the following: To represent the work of Filipino/a/x American artists in the Midwest, where they are underrepresented and a minority. To demonstrate that representation of different cultures and perspectives are essential and important. To invite and encourage individuals of other underrepresented cultures to feel welcome, as members of the community, to share and teach us about their own culture, if they so desire. And to show that all people are welcome and valid at this institution, no matter who or what they are.
Mentored by: Dr. Susan Lee
P89. Nuclear Division Autonomy Mediated by Microtubules in Fungi Ashbya gossypii
Ashbya gossypii is a single celled multinucleated fungus used as a model to examine nuclear dynamics in a common cytoplasm. Historically the characteristics of a single strain of Ashbya have been exclusively studied. In the summer of 2018 our lab received twenty strains originating across North America with the goal of identifying unique characteristics or similarities to the standard model. We used fluorescence microscopy to examine nuclear dispersion in mycelia confirming previous study results while also establishing average spacing for new isolates. This data were used as a foundation to conduct experiments in the spring of 2019 with the new goal of confirming the mechanisms behind autonomous nuclear division. Based on previous work we hypothesized nuclei depend on microtubules to demarcate individual nuclear zones to maintain enough distance for cell cycles in adjacent nuclei to remain autonomous. To investigate this hypothesis we introduced bacterial plasmid H4-GFP via electroporation transfection so that we could observe nuclear division and spacing in real time when cells were subjected to microtubule depolarization. We expect to see a halt in nuclear movement and division upon nocodazole introduction. Expected results would confirm our hypothesis and previous work that inter-nuclear spacing and nuclear division are dependent on microtubules.
Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller; Dr. Cori Anderson, Wesleyan University
P90. Cultural Deviance and Vilifying Male Femininity in Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock’s Strangers on a Train was released in 1951 based off the 1950 novel of the same name by Patricia Highsmith and holds a subtle comment on a major societal issue of the time, the Red Scare and the fear of communist threat. During this time any deviant, such as homosexuals, radical liberals, or those who didn’t fit the bill of “perfect, normal, American,” were under extreme scrutiny. The fact that Bruno, the antagonist for Strangers on a Train, is represented with subtle homosexual tendencies, which were thoroughly toned down compared to the novel’s account of the relationship between Bruno and Guy, reinforces the idea that homosexual men were criminals, villains, and most powerful of all – murderers. The audience may not have caught on to the idea that Bruno was supposed to be a homosexual male, but they definitely would have connected his feminine traits with their minds eye view of a dangerous man. I plan to explore the Red Scare, Hitchcock’s Film, and other examples of the fear of deviance, such as the play Perfect Arrangement by Topher Payne, throughout this paper.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P91. Freeing the Lady of Shallot from the House: Modernizing the Gender Roles of Victorian England
In Alfred Tennyson’s poem “The Lady of Shalott,” the story of a fair Arthurian damsel cursed to only see through a mirror to the outside world who is ultimately destroyed for her ambitions mirrors in turn the Victorian ideals of femininity and the objectification of women through British aestheticism, shows the limited roles allowed to women at the time because of concepts such as “the Angel in the House,” and serves as a warning to women to not strive outside of their allotted role in life for fear of persecution or even death. By shifting the time period which Tennyson’s poem is written to British Modernism and translating it into a prose fiction using techniques and early feminist theory present within Virginia Woolf’s written works, I was able to give “The Lady of Shallot” new life by giving a voice to the nameless lady of the original tale, using symbolism to show the double-standard she faces in her circumstances, and showing the damaging effects of her imprisonment and her triumph despite the overwhelming odds, just as women in British Modernism broke free and addressed the limiting nature of gender roles that were present from the generations before them.
Mentored by: Dr. Dawn Duncan
P92. La Desigualdad Entre los Generos en Mexico
The presentation focuses on the gender inequality for women in the workplace, in education, and in politics in Mexico. Comparing some statistics from the United States and from Mexico about gender inequality, I conclude that gender inequality is still a big problem in present societies. Even though we have seen some progress over the last two decades, there is still a lot of work to do to be able to reach the equality of genders in both contexts. The stereotypes for women in Mexico are being worked down, and women are getting more opportunities to participate in the job market, they are having more access to education and participation in politics, but the gap in comparison to men still is significant.
Mentored by: Dr. Fanny Roncal
P93. A Feminist Interpretation on Biblical Texts and Patriarchal Traditions in Christianity
Throughout history, the Bible has been used to oppress women with patriarchal interpretations of the text and the limited number of significant female figures named. Feminist analyses of the Bible expose intense patriarchal perspectives and messages through traditional interpretations of the text. Biblical passages, such as the New Testament’s household codes, may be interpreted in ways that subject women to inferior social status from that of men and promote the abuse of women in patriarchal societies. However, feminist interpretations also reveal empowering messages for women in biblical texts and history. Feminists have used alternative translations, metaphorical understandings, interpretations, and reconstructions of early Christian history to empower women through traditionally sexist texts. Biblical studies reveal the Bible’s ambiguous power can be used as either a tool to oppress women through traditional interpretations of the Bible or as a tool to empower women through feminist interpretations of the Bible. 1 Corinthians 11:2-16, 1 Corinthians 14:34-38, 1 Timothy 2.8-15, and Ephesians 5:21-24 are Bible verses used to oppress women through the lens of traditional biblical interpretations, but feminists have shared the many ways in which they have found alternative meanings of the biblical passages to, instead of oppress, empower women of the Christian faith.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
P94. Maintaining the Status Quo: Ambivalent Sexism and Response to Gender Stigma
Sarah Taylor, Sara Johnson
The present study investigated the ways in which ambivalent sexism and gender stigma consciousness interact to influence relational quality within heterosexual relationships. Specifically, we aimed to understand the moderating effect of women’s stigma consciousness on the relationship between women’s benevolent sexism and perceived support from their partner. A previous study discovered that when women’s stigma consciousness is high, women’s benevolent sexism positively predicted women’s perceived support from their partner (Mattison, 2017). This result was surprising because women often feel decreased relationship satisfaction when endorsing benevolent sexism (Hammond & Overall, 2013). Additionally, women with high levels of stigma consciousness tend to respond to subtle bias with anger and motivation to engage in collective action (Wang, Stroebe, & Dovidio, 2012), which seems inconsistent with seeking support from a significant other. However, this trend may be explained by ambivalent sexism theory (Glick & Fiske, 1996), which states that benevolent sexism functions to keep women focused on domestic roles and therefore maintains the status quo. We hypothesized that women who score high on benevolent sexism would turn toward their romantic partners as sources of support when they are aware of gender-related stigma. We also expected traditional gender role ideology and avoidance attachment in both men and women to mediate the relationship between benevolent sexism and relational quality. Heterosexual couples were recruited through psychology courses at Concordia. Participants independently completed several questionnaires, and the results were analyzed using the actor partner interdependence model (APIM; Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006).
Mentored by: Dr. Darcie Sell
P95. Links between Maternal Parenting and the Homosexual Menace
Hitchcock’s films, Strangers on a Train and Psycho, were created during a time of paranoia and distrust. Specifically, people feared the “homosexual menace.” The persecution of homosexuals in the 1950s was closely associated with the witch hunt for communists. Strangers on a Train and Psycho focus on a villain who can be interpreted as homosexual. Both of these Hitchcock films elude to a link between homosexuality and maternal overprotection. The development of the “homosexual menace” is represented as resulting from the attentions of an overbearing mother. This is a reflection of the events occurring during the time period in which the films were made, WWII and the Cold War. This paper will analyze the representation of homosexuals in the films Strangers on a Train and Psycho, examining the link portrayed between maternal parenting and the homosexual deviant. This research is significant to help better understand the representation of homosexuality in the 1950s and examine the past assumption that homosexuality could be linked to maternal parenting by analyzing Alfred Hitchcock’s films Strangers on a Train and Psycho. The research process involves searching online databases and the Concordia library to find articles exploring the belief that homosexuals were the consequence of overprotective mothering.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P96. Investigating the Pharmaceutical Incorporation of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid in a Series of Chitosan-Alginate Bioplastics
In recent years, chitosan-alginate bioplastics have become an area of significant study as a possible replacement to traditional petroleum-derived plastics for their degradability and potential as a controlled drug delivery system. At Concordia College, the general chemistry freshman lab has focused on incorporating these bioplastics into semester-long, student-driven projects. Students have modeled drug release systems utilizing blue food color, which has the advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, and easily measurable. Our research project looked at moving beyond the food color experiments and investigated the use of some simple pharmaceutical drugs. Our goal was to investigate whether aspirin and salicylic acid can be successfully incorporated into bioplastic films and then released under controlled circumstances. Aspirin is an ideal drug choice to synthesize into the bioplastics due to it being readily available, familiar to students, economical, and safe. Initial studies focused on developing an optimal method for incorporating aspirin and salicylic acid into chitosan-alginate bioplastic. The rate of release of these pharmaceuticals in response to external environmental factors including salinity, film loading, and pH, utilizing hydrochloric and acetic acid, were investigated spectroscopically. The results of this research and how this work can be implemented in the general chemistry lab setting will be discussed.
Mentored by: Dr. Graeme Wyllie
P97. Analysis of Aspartame and its Effect on the Human Body
Aspartame, a common artificial sweetener, has been feared by consumers for its link to tumor growth. This research analyzes aspartame and its metabolites’ association specifically with lymphoid neoplasms. The metabolism of phenylalanine, aspartic acid, methyl groups, and formaldehyde in the body are followed from ingestion to excretion. The Adequate Intake (AI) levels of aspartame and formaldehyde according to the Dietary Reference Intake are taken into consideration when determining the risk associated with aspartame consumption. Information found in this analysis originated from numerous research studies, which were analyzed for their validity and accuracy before considering their content. This analysis concluded long term consumption of aspartame under the AI to be safe for consumption and does not have a significant correlation to the development of lymphoid neoplasms.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Strang, Dr. Meredith Wagner
P98. The Traveling Salesman: Optimizing Concert Tours
Rebecca Twait, Julie Bittner
The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) requires that each city in a given list is visited once and only once before returning back to the starting location. Parameters such as time windows and distances placed on this problem quickly increase the complexity of a TSP. In this research, we explored algorithms used to find optimal tours and studied existing code that found tours given availability, travel, and time constraints. We then adjusted the code to make it more applicable to problems with differing constraints, including those with and without availability requirements. Specifically, we modified the code to find possible tours for two different scenarios involving cities across the United States and one scenario involving European cities.
Mentored by: Dr. Julia Walk
P99. Using Rhetoric: Filling in Taylor Swift’s “Blank Space”
Taylor Swift, 10-time Grammy winner and recipient of 23 AMA awards among her 329 total awards won, is a literary genius, and more specifically, a master at rhetoric. Aristotle would appreciate her skills in weaving rhetoric into almost every aspect of her music, including lyrics, music videos, and even release dates. Her song, “Blank Space”, from the album 1989, is an excellent example of how she has knitted rhetoric into modern-day pop music, to share a message much deeper than what seems to be sung. Tired of the media’s constant criticism of herself and her love life, Swift responds through this song to share her message that the media has built up a such an absurd image compared to who she truly is.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P100. KeyMIDI: Computer Keyboard Turned MIDI Controller, and a Music Making Artificial Intelligence
KeyMIDI is an application that turns your computer keyboard into a MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) controller that can be used to create music without the need to buy a separate MIDI device. This program uses the Java programming language for the main application. In a separate application, a program will automatically generate notes to play, that use the names of the keys that the sounds are mapped to. This would make music-making more accessible to those who have minimal to no musical training. In order to make the algorithm that generates the string of playable note, genetic algorithms and neural networking will be implemented to construct an artificial intelligence that mimics popular music theory, creating playable melodies.
Mentored by: Damian Lampl
P101. The Art of the Mind
Mental health awareness is a big aspect of today’s society. For a while, mental illnesses seemed like something to be ashamed of. Now, we know that it is okay to have a mental illness and that it is a lot more common than people think. I created this painting to bring awareness to a few common mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety. This painting contains one large brain surrounded by smaller brains highlighting the areas of the brain associated with different mental illnesses.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P102. We All Go a Little Mad Sometimes: An Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho and Strangers on a Train
My submission is a comparative work that analyzes the similarities between the Alfred Hitchcock films Psycho and Strangers on a Train, as well as each films antagonist. Primary focus is paid to the mother/son relationships shared by Norman Bates and Bruno Anthony and how these relationships contributed to the killers’ actions, as well as the theme of duality employed by both films. Further explored is Hitchcock’s use of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis, as well as his use of various film techniques, such as shadows to obscure faces and music to raise suspense. I will also describe how other common Hitchcock themes, police inefficiency, were represented in both movies.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P103. Psycho: A Pathway to Understanding
As part of Dr. Don Rice’s course, Filmmakers who Changed the World: Alfred Hitchcock, I am analyzing the psychological significance of Hitchcock’s film Psycho. As Psycho came out in 1960, a time when mental illness was hardly talked about, I want to argue how the film started conversations and brought attention to mental illness. Although Hitchcock presented multiple personality disorder in a theatrical sense, he still was able to present the disorder in fairly accurate way. My research process will be to comb through the movie to fully analyze how the disorder is portrayed. I will then do research on the disorder itself and compare and contrast Hitchcock’s representation to the actual disorder itself. I will then research how mental illness was portrayed in the 1950s and 1960s to show how the film brought mental illness to light and sparked conversations among society. Psycho was such a popular film which allowed a great number of people to be aware that mental disorders exist in society. Even with the disorder being portrayed in a negative light in the film, as Norman Bates was a serial killer, I still will argue the film was overall positive because it allowed people to think of mental illness as an actual disorder that affects members of society. Overall, I will show how the movie Psycho was a positive step in shaping society’s understanding of mental illness, specifically multiple personality disorder.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P104. Impact of Local Food Pantries on Special Dietary Needs for Individuals with Chronic Illnesses
Kayla Feigum, Rachel Tetlie, Luke Teigen, Tori Lee
Objective: To investigate the medical dietary needs and food allergies/intolerances of the individuals using local food pantries. Methods: The environmental nutrition class conducted a total of 179 surveys at the Emergency Food Pantry (Fargo, ND) and the Dorothy Day Food Pantry (Moorhead, MN) on February 18th-21st. The participants were given the option to complete a 42 question survey consisting of questions regarding the special dietary intake, medical conditions, and implications of the food received by the participants. We investigated the availability of foods to accommodate the special dietary needs of participants suffering from chronic diseases. The chronic illnesses observed include high blood pressure, diabetes, allergies/intolerances, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Results: Survey results indicated that 23% of participants have high blood pressure, 21% have diabetes, 15% have allergies/intolerances, and 3% have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Among the individuals that reported having special dietary needs, 46% indicated having limited access to those special foods. The majority of clients identified meat/protein foods, fruits/vegetables, and sugar free alternatives that would better meet their needs. Conclusion: Based on the results of the conducted surveys, the clients portrayed a high frequency of diabetes, high blood pressure, and allergies/intolerances. In order to meet the special dietary needs of food insecure individuals, food pantries should provide signage and pamphlets relating to specific needs. For example, food pantries can categorize heart healthy foods for individuals suffering from high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
P105. Cooking Equipment Needs of Food Pantry Clients in the Fargo-Moorhead Area
Emma Detloff, Megan Dondelinger, Ashley John, Kelly Riordan
To evaluate the cooking skills and equipment needs of clients of different food pantries in the Fargo-Moorhead area, students administered surveys during the week of February 18th through the 21st of 2019 to 179 clients of the Emergency Food Pantry in Fargo (n=112) and the Dorothy Day Food Pantry in Moorhead (n=67). Data were entered and evaluated using Microsoft Excel. 91% of participants surveyed indicated they like to cook and only 1.2% said they never cook. Only 78.1% of participants said they know how to prepare/cook the foods they are given at the food pantry, and 76.5% do not think cooking is difficult. In a series of open ended questions, clients indicated recipes and different methods of preparation were wanted. 60.1% of participants stated that they will still eat the foods given to them without knowledge of how to prepare it. In another open ended question, clients indicated that pots and pans, microwaves, crockpots, and utensils were the most needed pieces of cooking equipment. Based on the results of the surveys, with each visit to the food pantry recipes could be provided to clients based on the food they are receiving. To address the cooking equipment requested, an equipment drive for items such as pots and pans, utensils, crockpots, microwaves, Tupperware, and cookbooks would be a beneficial addition to the traditional food drive. The addition of donated items will enhance the cooking abilities of clients to better their experiences with the assistance they are receiving.
Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
A series of posters by students in Dr. Barb Witteman’s INQ 100 Course.
Emergency Food Pantry
This research about the Emergency Food Pantry was created to provide fourth graders and college students with further knowledge about hunger in the Fargo-Moorhead area. The discovery of the number of people who benefit from the services of the Emergency Food Pantry were amazing to see. It clearly depicted the need for change in all areas including those close to home. The research conducted included visits to the pantry and extensive research done online to see the level of hunger that is present in the area. This research was used to teach fourth graders to find their own research within various articles. They then used this research to create a visual used to present to their peers and to shoppers at the Hornbacher’s grocery store.
Emergency Food Pantry
For millions of people worldwide, obtaining food is a daily struggle. Inability to travel, illness, and food scarcity can inhibit its acquirement. In North Dakota alone, there are more than 55,000 people suffering from food insecurity. Nevertheless, there are ways to combat this hunger. Within the last century, tens of thousands of food pantries have been established worldwide to give assistance to the hungry and needful. Locally, organizations and individuals have taken on the initiative of helping those in need, as well. The Emergency Food Pantry in Fargo, North Dakota is one such program. For forty years, they have helped thousands of people per year and they continue to assist hundreds of people a day. Much of the pantry’s help originates from local volunteers and organizations willing to assists others. By researching local hunger statistics through my Hungry! inquiry class, analyzing the Emergency Food Pantry, and sharing research with local elementary students, I have been able to learn of and teach about the extensiveness of food insecurity and the importance of food pantries. These elementary students have expressed their new knowledge on various topics of hunger, like food pantries and they have learned about the impact hunger and the pantry have on the local and world society. Even so, an abundance of people are still suffering locally, and it is up to us and the future generations to continue the hard work and purpose of the Emergency Food Pantry.
In Inquiry 100 we studied hunger and researched an area of strong interest. After completing my research, I wrote and taught lessons about how bees impact hunger to a fourth grader. I continually assessed my student about what she learned about hunger and why this learning was significant. My hypothesis was that my student would be more knowledgable about how hunger impacts her peers in the community in which she lives and how to become more engaged in community service. My fourth grader also created a tri-fold to explain the importance of bees in relation to hunger. She was able to overcome selective mutism and give a public presentation under my mentorship. Fourth graders also completed multiple service-learning projects to benefit the Emergency Food Pantry in Fargo.
In Inquiry 100 we studied hunger and researched an area of strong interest. After completing my research, I wrote and taught lessons about how to create cheap and affordable meals to a fourth grader. I continually assessed my student on what he learned about hunger and why this learning was significant. My hypothesis was that my student would be more knowledgeable about how hunger impacts his peers in the community in which he lives and how to become more engaged in community service. My fourth grader also created a tri-fold to explain the importance of saving money but still buying healthy foods in relation to hunger. He was able to speak in front of his classmates and give a public presentation under my mentorship. The fourth graders also completed multiple service-learning projects to benefit the Emergency Food Pantry in Fargo.
I am doing a trifold presentation from my freshman Inquiry course, Hungry. In this course, I and my fellow classmates were assigned 4th grade students and had the responsibility of teaching them about hunger. I taught my student about farmers markets and at the end, had the student present what he learned to his fellow classmates and at a public event at a grocery store. I was tasked with researching information about farmers markets including background, benefits, and location. I taught my student this information throughout the course of three lesson plans which had to be designed to keep the student engaged and actively participating during the lesson. At the end of our lesson, I had my student write sentences of what he learned and the importance of farmers markets. When we were completed, I guided my student into creating a trifold, which he used to present his topic. This course and working with younger children taught me important things. I learned to prepare ahead while also being able to adapt quickly to situations. My student reminded me to laugh and smile all the time and to just be a kid every once in a while. I learned to become more patient and understanding and I became a great role model for someone that looked up to me. I would like to present my student’s poster and share with everyone a great experience.
The research that I completed was on the effectiveness/usefulness of share tables. My research provided the background of share tables, why they would be useful in schools, and who they would help. Based on my research, share tables are an extremely effective way to fight hunger, especially child hunger, and waste less food. I did background research on the topic and taught what I had learned to a 4th grade student I was mentoring. We then worked together and created a trifold display board. The board was displayed at Family Fare in West Fargo and was presented at Washington Elementary school. To conclude our project, we wrote a persuasive letter to the principal of Washington Elementary School in an effort to implement share tables at their school.
This project was done to show students how the average person can reduce the amount of food they waste each day. This research was done though the inquiry class, Hungry, and took place at Washington Elementary School in Fargo, ND. I taught two fourth graders using lessons, games, and activities. Together we learned what food waste is, its impacts, what people can do to reduce their food waste, and how those in poverty could benefit from this reduction. Then the fourth graders and I worked together to write research papers, speeches, and create a poster about food waste and its impacts. We presented their work at Washington Elementary School and at the Family Fare in Fargo, ND. Throughout this project, I learned that students learn differently from their peers, how activities and games can help students by making learning more enjoyable, and how students are better able to understand the topic through many different approaches.
P107. Food Insecurity at Concordia College
USDA defines food insecurity as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, and limited or uncertain ability to acquire foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity is a marker of economic hardship because it assesses the adequacy of a food supply to meet the nutritional needs for active, healthy living. The incidence of food insecurity nationwide affects around 12.7% of individuals, but amongst college students it ranges from 14-59% (Henry, 2017). In November 2018, Concordia College students in FND 321 conducted a survey using the USDA Six-Item Short Form with an additional three questions to determine campus-specific information. The purpose of the survey was to determine the prevalence of food insecurity on the Concordia College campus. The survey was sent via email to all Concordia students (N=2,080). A total of 483 students responded to the survey, which was a 23% response rate. From the survey results students concluded that at Concordia there is a lower incidence of food insecurity than at other colleges where similar assessment has been conducted. Sixty-four students (13.25%) reported they bought food that didn’t last and they didn’t have money to buy more. One hundred and ten students (22.77%) reported that in the past 12 months they couldn’t afford to eat balanced meals. Eighty-four participants (17.39%) said they were hungry but didn’t eat because there wasn’t enough money for food. Students provide suggestions on how the campus might decrease food insecurity even more on our campus.
Mentored by: Dr. Betty Larson
P108. Social Isolation Influences Pro-Social Behaviour and Affects Oxytocin Expression in the PVN
Stressful experiences in early life cause critical neurobiological, neurochemical, and neurobehavioural changes in adolescent and adult brains (Tzanoulinou and Sandi 2015). In the laboratory, the increase in social motivation and interaction seeking behaviours in isolated animals has been preliminarily established. Specifically, we have seen that seven days of post-weaning social isolation is long enough to leave lasting differences in social behaviour compared to group-housed adolescent controls. Now, we aim to discover how other social behaviours are affected by the isolation, focusing on social hierarchy within cages and habituation to stimulus mice. It has been shown that during social interaction, there is an increase of oxytocin neuron activity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that induces an increase of oxytocin release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key region of the neural reward circuit (Hung et al. 2017). Since oxytocin plays a role in promoting the pursuit of prosocial behaviour (Hung et al. 2017), we examined oxytocin expression in the PVN of the hypothalamus in socially isolated adolescent animals. Through these analyses, the cognitive and behavioural deficits demonstrated by socially isolated adolescent mice can be better understood.
Mentored by: Dr. Stefano Musardo and Dr. Camilla Bellone, University of Geneva; Dr. Mark Jensen
P109. Cholinergic Involvement in Spatial Memory Retrieval in the Water Maze
Alzheimer’s Dementia, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss, is associated with a loss of cholinergic function in the basal forebrain. Previous research and treatment attempts for Alzheimer’s Dementia have targeted the cholinergic system in the basal forebrain. The present study further investigates the effects of intracerebroventricular administered scopolamine, a cholinergic antagonist, on rat spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze. Not only did control and treated rats learn the water maze, but scopolamine significantly inhibited spatial memory retrieval. Further steps of this study analyzed the activity of matrix metalloproteinases -3 and -9 within the hippocampus during spatial memory retrieval and spatial memory retrieval inhibition as instrumented by scopolamine.
Mentored by: Dr. Mikel Olson
P110. Frontal Cortex Expression of Arc and Drd1a in Lupus-Prone Mice Following Passive Avoidance Learning
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. SLE can alter the functioning many organs, including the brain, and many patients report neuropsychiatric symptoms. Neuropsychiatric SLE is best modeled through the MRL-lpr mouse strain, which contains a mutation in the gene Fas. This mutation causes the development of lupus-like symptoms and behavior congruent with human SLE. The MRL-lpr2 mouse model contains the same Fas mutation but SLE symptoms do not progress as quickly or as severely as the MRL-lpr mice. The MRL- +/+ congenic strain lacks the Fas mutation but may exhibit SLE-like symptoms later in life. Models that progress slower, MRL-lpr2 and MRL- +/+, serve as controls in SLE research. In this study, we focused on passive avoidance learning in the MRL models. Male and female 18-week-old lupus-prone and control MRL mice were placed in the light side of a light-dark shuttle box and latency to enter the dark chamber was recorded followed by a mild, brief foot shock stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, latency to enter the dark chamber was recorded. Some of the lupus-prone mice learned to avoid the aversive stimulus while others did not. We are measuring expression of Arc, and Drd1a in the frontal cortex between behavioral cohorts of these animals. Based on review of other studies, we hypothesize an up-regulation of Arc and a down-regulation of Drd1a in mice that exhibited learning behaviors during passive avoidance compared to those who did not show signs of learning.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand