Poster Session 1 is 8:20-9:30 am in Memorial Auditorium.
1. Assessing the Identity of a New Allosaurus Skeleton from the Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming
Joseph Grove, Mentored by: Dr. Ron Nellermoe; Dr. Kristyn Voegele and Dr. Paul Ullmann
2. Life On The Edge
Brooke Swarthout, Mentored by: Dr. Jennifer Sweatman
3. Mara Salvatrucha: America’s Gang
Emma Vogel, Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
4. How Cinema and the Perception of Mental Health were Altered by Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho
Nolan Christenson, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
5. Experiential Learning Predicts Higher Empathy and Lower Anxiety
Kiara Timmerman, Mentored by: Dr. Mona Ibrahim
6. The Influence of Catholicism on Mexican Culture and “Machismo”
Sierra Wilson, Violet Wennberg, Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
7. Violencia Contra las Mujeres en El Salvador
Hannah Papenfuss, Mentored by: Dr. Fanny Roncal
8. Is God Truly Silent?
Anders Nackerud, Mentored by: Dr. Roy Hammerling
9. Alfred Hitchcock’s Use of Simple Imagery and Auditory Stimulation
Jack Spilles, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
10. The Role of Lapses of Attention in Item-Item Binding in Visual Working Memory
Emma Gjesdahl, Jacob Hanson, Mentored by: Dr. Dwight Peterson
11. Do Perceptual Grouping Cues Benefit Visual Working Memory Binding?
Grace Pettit, Miriam Probst, Jacob Hanson, Mentored by: Dr. Dwight Peterson
12. Numbing the Audience: How Mean World Syndrome has Desaturated the Horror of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho
Mary Balstad, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
13. The Birds: Hitchcock and du Maurier
Dominic Erickson, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
14. Documentation of Amphibian and Avian Biodiversity at Concordia College’s Long Lake Field Station
Chloe Whitten, Samuel Haley, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
15. African American Soldiers in the Revolutionary War
Ethan Haataja, Isaiah Anderson, Mickayla Allen, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
16. Experiences of the Stockbridge Indians
Peyton Mortenson, Justin Woida, Tanner Breidenbach, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
17. Economics of Individual Generosity
Luke Lillehaugen, Porter Ludwig, Mentored by: Dr. Robert Mayo
18. An Undervalued Stock in the US Economy: DREAMers
Sodnomdondov Tuvshintur, Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
19. Can Money Buy Happiness? Income and Overall Well-Being Across the Globe
Kate Campion, Macy Westerberg, Autumn Koetz, Mentored by: Dr. Mona Ibrahim
20. Essential to Exercise? Effects of Peppermint and Citrus Essential Oils on Anaerobic Performance
Mitchell Gullickson, Mentored by: Dr. Sarah Greterman
21. Demographics of Food Pantry Clients in the Fargo/Moorhead Area
Mikaela Herberg, Solveig Lundberg, Isaac Olson, Ariana Porter, Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
22. Overdue Due Process: An Analysis of Immigration Courts and Law in the United States
Brayden Sorenson, Alex Voigt, Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
23. Nutrient Needs of Food Pantry Clients
Meghan Rethemeier, Courtney Huttunen, Jacob Stilwell, Chase Brandt, Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
24. Latin American Immigration and the Economy of the United States: Taxes, Costs, and Benefits
Alexis Adrian, Mentored by: Dr. Fanny Roncal
25. Replication of Feng, S., D’Mello, S., & Graesser, A. C. (2013) at Concordia College, 2019
Kaytlynn Ziegler, Claire Clarke, Matthew Kindem, Mentored by: Dr. Mona Ibrahim
26. Development of a DC Plasma Device to Bring Experimental Plasma Physics into the
Concordia College Physics Program
Travis Deegan, Noah Schulz, Mentored by: Dr. Matthew ArchMiller
27. Determination of E. coli Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Enzyme Kinetics and ATP Inhibition in the Reaction of αKG + NH3 + NADPH -> Glu + NADP+
Graham Hegstad, Andrew Johnson, Josh Schmidt, Mentored by: Dr. David Mork
28. Religion, Spirituality, and the Physician: Integration into the Clinical Encounter
Zachary Strickland, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
29. The Importance of Vaccinations in Haiti
Hannah Jahner, Mentored by: Dr. Gay Rawson
30. Huntington’s Chorea Patients at Increased Risk for Death by Suicide: A Synthesis of the Nursing Literature
Jada Johnson, Mentored by: Dr. Jennifer DeJong
31. The Role of Custom Orthotics and Supportive Shoes in Treating Neuralgia Due to Disease State
Nathaniel Losing, Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
32. Gluten-Free Baking: A Guide to Gluten-Free Flours
Alexis Anderson, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Strang
33. Relearning Paths: Measuring Time for Zebrafish to Find a New Spatial Route
Reilly Mach, Hannah Almlie, Irini Lagogianni, Bretton Badenoch, Hannah Paulson, Alexis Wanner, Zsofi Zelenak, McKinley Siegle, Elly Isaacson, Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
34. Going West for the Printed Image
Elaine Laliberte, Xenia Loredo-Hollon, Nadia Robb, Chelsea Steffes, Mentored by: Heidi Goldberg
35. Theoretical Exhibition: A Step Through Norwegian and Swedish Weaving and Wood Carving History
Rachel Olson, Mentored by: Dr. Susan Lee
36. Women Soldiers in the Civil War
Andrea Ellefson, Cole Birch, Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
37. Women of Hitchcock: The Strength Behind the Beauty
Erin Grabinger, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
38. Beavers at Long Lake Exhibit Preferential Herbivory for Aspens
Riley Erlandson, Allison Marcus, Emily Weidner, Ashley Walla, Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
39. Exploring the Impact of Social Interaction vs. Isolation in a Zebrafish Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Riley Erlandson, Kenneth David, Yanick Tade, Kelly Noah, Emily Hilfers, Emily Hao, Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
40. Portrayal of Homosexuality in Alfred Hitchcock’s Strangers on a Train
Samuel Hermann, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
41. Queer Reflections in Hitchcock’s Strangers on a Train
Alyssa Armstrong, Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
42. Comparing Gene-Editing Efficiency of CRISPR Cas9 and Cpf1 in Mammalian Cells
Talia Dalzell, Mentored by: Dr. Michael Farzan, The Scripps Research Institute
43. Using Radio Telemetry to Assess the Behaviors and Habitat Use of Urban Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and Potential Competition with Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
Sonja Gilje, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
44. Comparison of Small Mammal Communities on Restored and Remnant Prairies in Northwestern Minnesota
Emma Detloff, Chloe Whitten, Kendra Johnson, Micah Esala, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
45. Cone Collection Behaviors on Tamiasciurus hudsonicus on an Urban College Campus
Jenna Stilwell, Kaylee Koski, Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
46. To Survive or Thrive: How Prairie Burning Affects Oxeye
Mia Locquegnies, Linka Wintersteen, Mikenna Becker, Tadiwanashe Shamu, Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
47. Tallgrass Prairie Dynamics are Moderated by Prescribed Burning: Case Study at Concordia’s Long Lake Field Station
Emma Chandler, Marley Lund, Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
48. Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Objects
Thomas Styrvoky, Mentored by: Dr. Thelma Berquó
49. Intracellular Signaling Adaptor Protein Localization in the Rat Supraoptic Nucleus
Chiso Nkenke, Glory Kom Petnkeu Mentored by: Dr. Jason Askvig
50. PI3K Subunits in the Rat Supraoptic Nucleus
Emily Weidner, Austin Grove, Victoria Ihry, Munir Isahak, Mentored by: Dr. Jason Askvig
51. Cisplatin Derivatives and the Ability to Target Cancer Cells
Adam Ortmeier, Mentored by: Dr. Donald Krogstad
52. Synthesis of Folic Acid Derivative of Cisplatin
Andrew Trowbridge, Mentored by: Dr. Donald Krogstad
53. Synthesis of Folate Derivatives of Cisplatin and RAPTA
Jase Olson, Anh Nguyen, Mentored by: Dr. Donald Krogstad
54. Determining the Effects of Prescribed Field Burns on Milkweed Density and Trait Investment at Long Lake Field Station
David Fehr, Cole Hoscheid, Kelly Noah, Brandon Ciak, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Marko
55. Phenotypic Plasticity of Potamogeton illinoensis in Relation to Lake Depth at Long Lake
Samantha Engrav, Sofia Palme, Liv Overby, Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Marko
P1. Assessing the Identify of a New Allosaurus Skeleton from the Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming
Allosaurus fragilis is one of the best known theropod dinosaurs, with numerous skeletons described from Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. However, relatively complete skeletons of Allosaurus remain rare, in part because they are often found in disarticulated bone beds. We provide a preliminary description of a new specimen, comprised of 65 cranial and postcranial elements, found near Shell in the Jurassic Morrison Formation in north-central Wyoming. The specimen exhibits a unique combination of large body size with sub-adult characteristics. We interpret the remains as belonging to a sub-adult individual due to the majority of the dorsal vertebrae remaining unfused, the pubes being unfused, the coracoid not being fused to the scapula, and elements within the skull remaining unfused. Additionally, the number of alveoli is high compared to agreed-upon "adult" individuals of Allosaurus. Whereas previously described adult specimens of Allosaurus exhibit 14-17 alveoli in the maxilla and dentary, the new specimen exhibits 19-21 alveoli in each jaw element. Despite these indications that the individual was not fully grown, it was comparable in body size to other "adult" Allosaurus specimens. The dorsally-projecting lacrimal horn of the new specimen is comparatively pronounced and the anterior edge of its descending process exhibits a more prominent projection into the antorbital fenestra relative to many other specimens of Allosaurus. Further comparison to other specimens is needed, and we are making arrangements to examine the histology of the femur of the new specimen to independently assess the ontogenetic age of this individual.
Mentored by: Dr. Ron Nellermoe; Dr. Kristyn Voegele and Dr. Paul Ullmann, Rowan University
P2. Life On The Edge
Human activity, specifically fragmentation, has been an issue negatively impacting marine communities for decades. Fragmentation is the division of continuous habitat into smaller habitat patches. Because seagrass beds are distributed in shallow waters, they are susceptible to fragmentation via boat propellers. This creates a propeller scar, a strip of sediment through seagrasses, that introduces an edge habitat. Edges have unique environmental conditions (i.e., different current flow and temperature, increased predation risk, etc.), which can have negative implications for marine life. The goal of this research was to see if isopod density and species distribution are affected by the edge. To understand if the edge habitat negatively impacts the isopod community, we collected samples from the edge of a scar then at increasing distance into a continuous seagrass bed. Our research site was off the coast of Islamorada, Florida, in seagrass beds heavily impacted by boating activity. Three propeller scars were haphazardly chosen. Samples were collected at 0 meters from the edge of the scar, and at 1, 2, and 5 meters into the continuous seagrass bed. Isopods were separated from vegetation and sediment, identified, and quantified. The most common species was Amaskusanthura signata (17% of total) in the suborder Anthuridea. We anticipate that there will be no change in density as distance from the edge of scar increases. Because few studies focus on understanding the impacts of fragmentation on isopod communities, our project provides a base upon which future studies can build to understand the factors that impact isopod communities.
Mentored by: Dr. Jennifer Sweatman
P3. Mara Salvatrucha: America's Gang
I researched the MS-13 gang, and how it specifically relates to the topic of immigration today in the United States for my inquiry class: No Country for Lost Children. The research is significant because it provides background and understanding about one of today's controversial political issues. My thesis is that a better understanding of MS-13 and motives for joining it are the first steps in creating anti-gang legislation and rehabilitation programs that work. It is supported by intensive research from a variety of sources, including current news articles, scholarly journals, and books. I found that the American gang culture was first created by the discrimination of minorities in the 1800s. As these minorities assimilated to American culture, the gangs disappeared. In 1980, a war in El Salvador caused many El Salvadoran refugees to flee to America. In the face of discrimination, they created a gang called the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13). In an attempt to weaken MS-13, America began deporting gang members back to El Salvador. However, these deportations ended up exporting the American gang culture to Central America, causing a rise in violence. This caused more refugees to flee to America. Trump is generating fear around MS-13 to try to convince Congress to end the visa lottery, complete the Mexican border wall, and stop chain migration. However, very few members of MS-13 immigrate to the United States. Rather, new members are recruited in America as minorities face discrimination and lack other options to gain respect or stability.
Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
P4. How Cinema and the Perception of Mental Health were Altered by Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho
When Alfred Hitchcock released the film Psycho in 1960, it was highly acclaimed and successful. What the film was also successful at was permanently altering the movie genre of horror and suspense, as well as how people thought of mental illness at a time when most did not know much about the subject. Psycho can be argued to be an example of Freudian psychology at its most extreme, an Oedipus complex so great it drove a man to a life of secrecy and murder. Hitchcock also made one of the first films to actively portray a character with a mental illness in Norman Bates. Through multiple scenes in the film, Norman offers a glimpse into the world of a man living with dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder. Released when public knowledge of mental health was more limited than today's world, Psycho had a profound impact on how people viewed mental health and mental health disorders. The film can also be analyzed to see what Hitchcock himself thinks of how mental health was treated and perceived in the 1950's. Pushing the limits of what he could bring to the big screen at the time, Alfred Hitchcock created a spellbinding story that helped provide a cultural shift for decades to come, in cinema as well as the general public.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P5. Experiential Learning Predicts Higher Empathy and Lower Anxiety
In our increasingly diverse world, engaging responsibly with others, adopting values that can strengthen community relationships, and helping build a society responsive to multicultural and global concerns are important skills for students to develop. Previous research has pointed to the importance of experiential learning with diverse others in helping students develop these skills. This poster will present quantitative and qualitative data from a study examining the effectiveness of experiential learning at Concordia. Data from a global perspectives course that did not include an experiential component were compared to data from a similar course that included a requirement for students to engage with the F/M community for at least 40 hours throughout the semester. The students in the experiential course interacted with Muslim immigrants/refugees at an adult education center. Students in both the experiential and non-experiential courses completed pre and post measures of anxiety toward Muslims and of ethnocultural empathy. Scores on these quantitative measures indicated a significant relationship between experiential learning on the one hand and reduced intergroup anxiety and increased ethnocultural empathy on the other hand. In addition, qualitative data from student journals were analyzed in order to gain a deeper understanding of which aspects of experiential learning were most impactful and in which areas students experienced the most gains. The journals were coded and analyzed by two researchers, in order to ensure dependability. This study helps increase understanding of how higher education courses can foster the development of more ethnocultural empathy and less prejudice among college students.
Mentored by: Dr. Mona Ibrahim
P6. The Influence of Catholicism on Mexican Culture and "Machismo"
Sierra Wilson, Violet Wennberg
Since the Spanish conquests of Latin America in the 16th century, Catholicism has played a large role in shaping the culture of Mexico. Even throughout the divisive past between the religious and secular side of the nation, over 85% of Mexico still identified as Catholic in 2010. While Catholic teachings and traditions provide a rich spiritual history that positively influences the culture of Mexico, the patriarchal and conservative nature of the faith is also playing a role in the perpetuation of gender imbalances and 'machismo' in Mexico and surrounding countries. The Catholic Church strongly opposes the use of contraceptives, abortion, and any expressions of sexuality outside of marriage. Women are also unable to participate in any leadership roles within the church. This poster presentation will explore the rich history and current influence of Catholicism in Mexican culture, and its impact on 'machismo', gender inequality, and reproductive rights in the area.
Mentored by: Karin Hillstrom
P7. Violencia Contra las Mujeres en El Salvador
The objective of the presentation is to show the prevalence of violence against women in El Salvador, while also exploring the factors that contribute to this phenomenon, such as gang violence and cultural attitudes. It will end with a discussion of possible solutions to combat the issue.
Mentored by: Dr. Fanny Roncal
P8. Is God Truly Silent?
Silence is a book by Japanese author Shusaku Endo that explores the silence of God when dealing with immense suffering, and the concept of forgiveness for those who betray God as a result. The book is about two Jesuit priests, Sebastian Rodrigues and Francisco Garrpe, who travel to Japan to find a missionary colleague who is rumored to have apostatized. In the 17th century, missionaries felt especially attacked in Japan since the emperor, Tokugawa Ieyasu, put out an expulsion decree for all Christians. Shusaku Endo wrote this book to emulate his own experience as a Christian in Japan, and his feelings of being an "outsider" in his own country. This poster discusses Shusaku Endo, the persecution of Christians in 17th century Japan, and the difficult choices missionaries were forced to make in Endo's masterpiece Silence.
Mentored by: Dr. Roy Hammerling
P9. Alfred Hitchcock's Use of Simple Imagery and Auditory Stimulation
The topic I plan to write about for the critical paper project is how Alfred Hitchcock uses very simple, minimalist features both visually and auditorily to create the feeling of suspense that his films are well-known for. Alfred Hitchcock uses simple imagery and the lack of auditory stimulation to develop the feeling of suspense in his films. The deserted road in North by Northwest is an example of Hitchcock's use of simple imagery and lack of auditory stimulation to develop the feeling of suspense as the audience sees a man standing at the side of an back-country road. The lack of stimulation lulls the viewer into a sense of false security, which is then rudely interrupted by the loud droning of the crop duster that flies overhead of him, and the ensuing scene where he is running and the camera is flying all over the place. This contrast between the two scenes just minutes apart is what creates the effect that the viewer feels when the crop duster buzzes him. The scene in The Birds when Melanie is walking up the stairs in a silent house, searching for the source of a strange noise, is perhaps the best example of Hitchcock's practice of not using sound to create suspense in a scene. Without sound, it is easier for the viewer to place their self in the scene, which adds to the suspense. When compared to the scene with music added, the feeling of suspense was lessened.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P10. The Role of Lapses of Attention in Item-Item Binding in Visual Working Memory
Emma Gjesdahl, Jacob Hanson
Visual working memory (VWM) allows us to temporarily store information from the visual world. Lapses of attention are described as momentary losses of focused attention that can affect WM capacity. Previous literature indicates that VWM performance is negatively impacted by lapses of attention (Unsworth & Robison, 2016). Recent findings also suggest that feature binding in VWM requires a greater amount of attentional resources as compared to single features (Peterson & Naveh-Benjamin, 2017). The current study examined the role of internal lapses of attention on unrelated single objects (i.e., item tests) and object pairs (i.e., binding tests) during a VWM change detection task. It was hypothesized that these lapses of attention would impact binding performance to a greater extent than performance for single items. Participants were shown three unrelated object pairs and, following a brief delay period, were tested using single-item or item-item binding probes. Following some of the trials, participants were asked to make a metacognitive judgement based on the question, "What were you just thinking about?" to examine the impact of internal lapses of attention on both item and binding test performance. Results revealed lower overall levels of performance while participants indicated that they were "mind wandering" relative to when they indicated they were "on-task". In contrast to our hypothesis, however, the impact of internal lapses of attention impacted single-item and item-item binding processes to a similar extent, suggesting that internal lapses of attention have a broad detrimental impact on VWM processes.
Mentored by: Dr. Dwight Peterson
P11. Do Perceptual Grouping Cues Benefit Visual Working Memory Binding?
Grace Pettit, Miriam Probst, Jacob Hanson
Visual working memory (VWM) allows humans to briefly store features from the visual world for subsequent processing. While VWM is limited in capacity (e.g., 3-4 items), organizational aspects of mid-level visual processes have been leveraged to benefit VWM processes. For instance, a number of previous studies have examined the role of Gestalt principles and perceptual grouping cues (e.g., similarity, connectedness, proximity, illusory contours). Many of these studies have found grouping-related benefits for VWM performance when remembering single items or single features (e.g., similarity of color: Peterson & Berryhill, 2013; Brady & Tenenbaum, 2013; similarity and connectedness between colors and shapes: van Lamsweerde, Beck, & Johnson, 2016; connectedness and proximity: Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003, illusory contours: Allon, Vixman, & Luria, 2018; Gao, Gao, Tang, Shui, & Shen, 2016). The current study examined whether these grouping-related benefits extend to VWM binding processes. During a VWM change detection task concurrent with articulatory suppression, participants viewed three color-orientation conjunctions that served as inducers (e.g., pac-man like stimuli) that either formed an illusory object (e.g., Kanizsa triangle) or were randomly oriented and, thus, formed no illusory object. Following a brief delay period, a single-probe test stimulus appeared at the center of the screen and included either an "old" or "new" color, orientation, or color-orientation conjunction stimulus. Results revealed no grouping-related benefit for the color test condition, but did reveal significant grouping-related benefits to both the orientation and color-orientation conjunction (i.e., binding) conditions. These findings suggest that task difficulty mediates grouping-related benefits in VWM.
Mentored by: Dr. Dwight Peterson
P12. Numbing the Audience: How Mean World Syndrome has Desaturated the Horror of Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho
Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho is often cited when talking of modern horror movies, with allusions to the shower scene. More than 50 years after its release, the trends and clichés that were established by Hitchcock are observed in modern horror span and many subgenres, continually pushing boundaries and stirring up controversy. The significance of this research will unearth what once brought about chaos now numbs the viewing public. Through the lens of communication studies, horror's introduction through Psycho has integrated into Western culture. Through heavy research into the behind-the-scenes and on-set reports of Psycho, trends of violence toward women and unabashed gazing not only by the antagonist but the guilty audience as well will develop a conclusion. That is through the destruction of classical horror norms, this film revolutionized the genre while creating new pathways for the audience to evaluate these new stimuli. Through such uses of music and lighting, Hitchcock terrifies his audience with the greatest monster that does not lurk in the dark of the night but rather stands out in broad daylight; the everyday man. The major factors of Psycho create the foundation for modern horror. By making and breaking expectations of not only his movies but a genre, Hitchcock broke new ground of a suspenseful thriller. The twists and turns of Psycho started and defined a subgenre, scaring audiences while subverting the norm. This research will show what once was horrifying audience numb them.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P13. The Birds: Hitchcock and du Maurier
One of Alfred Hitchcock's most celebrated and viewed films, The Birds, is inspired by real life news events following various bird attacks and Daphne du Maurier's short story of the same name. Both are well known and have been reviewed by many scholars, yet the two are much different from one another. Hitchcock's The Birds varies from the du Maurier story because of the difference in the feeling of space. Daphne du Maurier's The Birds setting is a suburb of London, Cornwall, ten years before the movie was set. It follows Nat, a farmhand, and his family as flocks of birds begin attacking humans in kamikaze fashion, prompting them to hole up in their house and ration their food. Hitchcock's The Birds sees the small town of Bodega Bay, California, and how they all react to the birds' presence. They traverse quite a bit throughout the town. du Maurier's story gives a sense of claustrophobia, evident by the constant setting of the farmhouse, and Hitchcock has crafted a massive backdrop for the events. The feeling of each has a large impact on the overall tone of the works, and although they follow a similar plot, they convey entirely different ranges of emotion. The setting, not the story, is the sole reason for this to happen.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P14. Documentation of Amphibian and Avian Biodiversity at Concordia College's Long Lake Field Station
Chloe Whitten, Samuel Haley
Over the past decade, amphibian populations have been experiencing an increased rate of decline at the local, regional, and global scale. Environmental stressors such as habitat degradation, chemical contamination, chytridiomycosis fungus, and climate change have shown negative effects on these populations. Due to their intricate aquatic life cycles and permeable skin, amphibian species are thought to be exceptionally sensitive to environmental fluctuations which makes them key bioindicators of environmental quality. Amphibians are also known to have distinct breeding seasons and during which, produce loud vocal calls to attract mates. Surveys of these breeding choruses are understood to be a reliable method of monitoring amphibian population trends. Anthropogenic alterations to North American prairies have also caused habitat degradation for prairie nesting birds. Currently, Concordia College's Long Lake Field Station does not have any solid documentation of amphibian or avian populations on its land. The Long Lake Burn complex is a series of prairies being restored to promote the biodiversity of native plants. It is hypothesized that this will result in a positive correlation between increased plant biodiversity and avian biodiversity on the restored prairies and surrounding forest and wetland habitats. By using a recording device, the songs of these animals can be used to develop a long-term monitoring program and listening guide that will provide documentation of amphibian and avian biodiversity. This will help determine the success of prairie restoration at Concordia College's Long Lake Field Station in Northwestern Minnesota.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P15. African American Soldiers in the Revolutionary War
Ethan Haataja, Isaiah Anderson, Mickayla Allen
Our research focuses on the topic of African Americans who fought in the American Revolutionary War. We will provide an overall general knowledge about African Americans in the war, as well as information on specific African people such as Boyrereau Brinch and Colonel Tye who were key figures in the war, as well as the First Rhode Island Regiment who were an all black unit. Black soldiers were an important group of people to the United States victory. Without black soldiers, the United States could have lost due to not having enough soldiers to fight off the British. Our research focused on traditional library sources and websites, but it was a challenge to find sources from a black perspective. Few blacks were literate in this time period. Many people are unaware of the fact that slaves and free black people fought for the colonists in the Revolutionary War, as well as on the side of the loyalists. We want to give credit and recognition to a group of people who helped fight for the freedom that we have today.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P16. Experiences of the Stockbridge Indians
Peyton Mortenson, Justin Woida, Tanner Breidenbach
For our group's poster, we are going to narrow our focus to the Stockbridge Indians. Even more specifically, how their lives were changed and affected by the Revolutionary War. We plan to first give background information on what it was like for them prior to the war, then show how they had to adjust and how they were treated post-war. This is a significant topic because the Revolutionary War made a large impact on everyone involved, especially native Americans. By picking a single group, we hope to emphasize that impact to give a better understanding on how the war truly impacted lives. Our research involved library searches, websites, and secondary sources.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P17. Economics of Individual Generosity
Luke Lillehaugen, Porter Ludwig
Every individual in society has a different propensity to donate depending on personal preferences and opinions. In order to gain information on individual generosity, participants were given a small allotment of money and given the opportunity to keep it all, or donate any quantity to the American Red Cross Disaster Relief Fund. Each individual was given a specific multiplier value for the amount donated between 0.5 and 2.0 to examine their price elasticity of charitable giving. Amazon's Mechanical Turk was used to recruit and compensate participants. The focus of our analysis was on the donation trends across demographics with a special emphasis on gender. The data collected showed that women tended to be more affected by the donation multiplier than men, but no significant differences were present across age, income, or marital status.
Mentored by: Dr. Robert Mayo
P18. An Undervalued Stock in the US Economy: DREAMers
"Giving up on value is a sin," is one of the well-known basic rules of investing in stocks. It simply means that investors must keep the stocks that have worth and will possibly return more earnings in the future. The US as a whole country is currently divided on making a similar decision whether to sell one of their most fruitful stocks: its undocumented youth. The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act) is a proposed act of which the main aim is to provide "a path to citizenship for certain undocumented youths who came to the United States as children." Since it was introduced in 2001 by Dick Durbin and Orrin Hatch, it has only passed the House of Representatives, but not the Senate. Based on a number of comprehensive studies, it is evident that the economic arguments put forward by the advocates of protecting undocumented immigrants are much more sound and true. Because young undocumented immigrants in the US are an indispensable part of the country's economy, passing acts that would reform the immigration system and provide the young undocumented residents with the opportunity to contribute more to the economy is absolutely fundamental to uplift the lives of both immigrants and natives in the US.
Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
P19. Can Money Buy Happiness? Income and Overall Well-Being Across the Globe
Kate Campion, Macy Westerberg, Autumn Koetz
The research we conducted was a replication of a study done by Diener et al. in 2010, titled "Wealth and Happiness Across the World: Material Prosperity Predicts Life Evaluation, Whereas Psychosocial Prosperity Predicts Positive Feelings" that was looking at the relationship between income and life satisfaction in different populations around the world. It is important that we replicated this study in order to obtain data that is representative of Concordia College's campus population, which we can then contribute to a larger database, as well as to understand the feelings of Concordia students and how they compare to others. This data was collected through the Qualtrics Survey system, and Concordia College students were invited to participate through the SONA system. The responses will be recorded via online survey and the data will be analyzed using SPSS. We hypothesize that the results of our replication will show a significant correlation between income and overall well-being. If people easily have their daily needs met, there will be less stress surrounding reducing the burden in their lives which will allow for a greater feeling of overall satisfaction. We are also predicting that positive feelings will be more reliant on social psychological rewards, whereas negative feelings will develop in response to lack of fulfillment of our basic needs.
Mentored by: Dr. Mona Ibrahim
P20. Essential to Exercise? Effects of Peppermint and Citrus Essential Oils on Anaerobic Performance
Essential oils have long been considered a form of alternative medicine. Derived from plants, they contain highly concentrated chemical compounds. Peppermint oil contains anti-inflammatory and decongestant agents, while citrus oil contains antioxidants. Given these properties, it is hypothesized that essential oils have the potential to enhance exercise performance. The purpose of this study is to determine if peppermint or citrus essential oils have a significant effect on anaerobic exercise performance and blood lactate accumulation. Seven (2 male, 5 female) Concordia students participated in the study. Three trials of the Wingate anaerobic cycling test were performed, with the order of the variables (peppermint, citrus, or control) randomly determined. The oils were applied topically under the nose. Blood lactate accumulation, mean anaerobic power, and relative mean anaerobic power were recorded. A repeated measures one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine significant differences within subject groups. Mean anaerobic power had no significant difference F(2,15)=0.084, p=0.920. There was also no significant difference in blood lactate accumulation F(2,15)=0.084, p=0.920. According to the results, there was no significant impact on anaerobic capacity or blood lactate accumulation following topical administration of peppermint or citrus essential oils. Given the small sample size, however, no definitive conclusions can be drawn pertaining to the efficacy of essential oils on anaerobic exercise performance or blood lactate accumulation. Further research should include recruiting more participants and performing a blood lactate step test at specific intervals following the test.
Mentored by: Dr. Sarah Greterman
P21. Demographics of Food Pantry Clients in the Fargo/Moorhead Area
Mikaela Herberg, Solveig Lundberg, Isaac Olson, Ariana Porter
Objective: To assess the needs of food pantry clients in order to better serve them based on their demographics. Methods: Concordia College students enrolled in Environmental Nutrition visited the Dorothy Day Food Pantry and Emergency Food Pantry during the week of February 18-21, 2019. Students distributed surveys to clients asking a range of questions including their demographics, specific dietary needs, and cooking abilities. The data were then compiled and organized to determine future outcomes and goals to help improve the food pantries. Results: Some clients travel over 90 miles in order to fulfill their food needs. The majority of clients have children, with nearly 40% having two or more. Over 40% of clients are non-white. The majority of clients are also employed and educated. Over 43% of clients visit the surveyed food pantries more than six times a year. Conclusion: Based on the number of clients that the food pantries serve, it is obvious that hard work is done to meet the needs of their clientele. However, based on the demographic data, a more culturally diverse selection of foods should be available to pantry clients. Since the majority of families that visit the food pantry also have children, a wide variety of child-friendly and nutritious foods should also be available. To fit the needs of clients that must travel long distances to obtain food, it would be beneficial to increase the number and awareness of existing mobile food pantries and food pantry alternatives closer to them.
Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
P22. Overdue Due Process: An Analysis of Immigration Courts and Law in the United States
Brayden Sorenson, Alex Voigt
This project examines extreme variation in the outcome of immigration court case verdicts. This variation exists both between courts and between judges in an individual court, as well as by whether a defendant receives counsel, which is not considered a right in immigration courts. After an investigation into the causes of the variations and the underlying factors contributing to them, we propose two solutions: ensure the right to counsel for every defendant and increase the number of judges within the system. Through the research process, we relied on various sources including TRAC Immigration Research, official statistics from Immigration and Customs Services, and even an immigration court proceeding in Bloomington, Minnesota. These sources were used for legal information, statistical analysis, and to compare our findings to proposals from politicians and other researchers. Our research suggests that our proposed steps would not only be significantly beneficial in reducing the variation in immigration court case outcomes but are also possible to implement in economically feasible ways.
Mentored by: Dr. Lisa Twomey
P23. Nutrient Needs of Food Pantry Clients
Meghan Rethemeier, Courtney Huttunen, Jacob Stilwell, Chase Brandt
Objective: To assess whether or not local food pantries are able to meet the nutritional needs of clients. Methods: Students of the environmental nutrition class at Concordia went to the Emergency Food Pantry and the Dorothy Day Pantry and administered a 42 question survey to 179 clients. Data was collected on February 18th, 19th, 20th and the 21st of 2019. Results: In response to the surveys, 56.4% of clients indicated that they did not meet the daily recommendations of 3 servings of vegetables per day. 51.2% said the food provided at the pantry did not allow them to get enough fruits and vegetables. 82.9% of clients said they would eat more fruits and vegetables if they were available. 33.6% do not have access to clean, drinkable water. Conclusion: This survey highlights the need for fresh produce, and the nutritional value of vitamins and minerals they provide. While the food pantry provides an ample amount of shelf-stable items, their contents are lacking in vital nutrients. The results of our survey suggest that the clients at the food pantry are not meeting the daily recommendations of fruits and vegetables. Finding the food pantries more access to these items may increase their nutrient
Mentored by: Dr. Meredith Wagner
P24. Latin American Immigration and the Economy of the United States: Taxes, Costs, and Benefits
Immigration is a significant area of contention in the US today. Its prevalence is partly attributed to the fact that more immigrants reside in the US than any other country. Discourse about immigration at the regional and national level is frequently misinformed. The current government and Trump administration play a prominent role in spreading common misconceptions; their rhetoric concerning both documented and undocumented immigrants include statements such as: immigrants avoid taxes and harm the economy, they take jobs away from natural-born citizens, and they use government benefits they neither qualify for nor earned. Immigration from Latin America is a heavily controversial topic, with many people remaining uninformed or misinformed on the subject. This controversy makes it especially important to determine the overall impact on the US; therefore, this investigation researched the economic impact of Latin-American immigrants. During the investigation, the economic benefit and burden of immigration was analyzed, with an emphasis on how taxes and government resources were used. In order to correct common myths, current sources such as news investigations were considered in addition to a broad literature review. Research of this nature is particularly important because it reduces misinformation, therefore improving overall discourse. In order to make informed decisions about this nationally significant issue, our community and beyond must have an improved critical understanding of immigration.
Mentored by: Dr. Fanny Roncal
P25. Replication of Feng, S., D'Mello, S., & Graesser, A. C. (2013) at Concordia College, 2019
Kaytlynn Ziegler, Claire Clarke, Matthew Kindem
Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.
Mentored by: Dr. Mona Ibrahim
P26. Development of a DC Plasma Device to Bring Experimental Plasma Physics into the Concordia College Physics Program
Travis Deegan, Noah Schulz
Over 99.9% of observable matter in the universe is in the plasma state. However, despite the numerous applications, plasma physics is often underrepresented in an undergraduate curriculum. A DC glow discharge device was developed at Concordia College to conduct plasma physics research and be used as an educational tool in the advanced laboratory. The plasma breakdown voltage was measured for different gases and found to nonlinearly depend on the product of gas pressure and electrode spacing, in agreement with Paschen's Law. Additionally, the electron temperature in the plasma was estimated using two independent methods; a Langmuir probe and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The probe method yielded estimates that were significantly higher than expected compared to the NIR spectroscopy technique, illuminating some of the challenges of obtaining and interpreting probe measurements. In conducting experimental plasma physics research, students gain a broad set of transferable skills through an exposure to technology (e.g., electronics, vacuum systems, and optics) and techniques (e.g., data analysis and computer programming), and is thus a good addition to an undergraduate institution.
Mentored by: Dr. Matthew ArchMiller
P27. Determination of E. coli Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Enzyme Kinetics and ATP Inhibition in the Reaction of αKG + NH3 + NADPH -> Glu + NADP+
Graham Hegstad, Andrew Johnson, Josh Schmidt
Enzymes are an essential aspect of life and aid in metabolic regulation and activity. Investigating the kinetic mechanisms that impact an enzyme's efficiency and ability to catalyze chemical reactions has an ever growing application in research, pertaining to enzymology and medicine. Bacteria and bacterial components are commonly used as efficient models for understanding the human analogs. Our research targets the kinetic mechanism of the E. coli glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme in catalyzing the reaction of, a-KG + NH3 + NADPH -> Glu + NADP+ . The reverse GDH reaction is the primary means of ammonia assimilation in prokaryotes and regulation of this enzyme is crucial for nitrogen metabolism in all organisms. We are investigating the rate of reaction via light spectroscopy with respect to a-KG and ammonia concentration in the presence of ATP, to determine the type of inhibition and the extent to which ATP inhibits the reaction.
Mentored by: Dr. David Mork
P28. Religion, Spirituality, and the Physician: Integration into the Clinical Encounter
My motivation to become a doctor, combined with a healthy sense of curiosity about physical sciences and personal experience with pain and illness, created a drive to research the connections between faith, science, and medicine, and what contributes to a whole person. In modern culture, science, medicine, and religiosity are often divided. However, is this the best way for providers to go about treating patients? My research process focused on identifying peer-reviewed studies of the impacts of religious and spiritual behaviors and associations on long-term health outcomes. I also identified expert commentaries on the ethics of patient-provider spiritual conversations as well as recommended frameworks to guide such conversations, which were useful in examining ethical questions associated with religion and health. These resources were identified by keyword searches in ProQuest with access provided by Concordia College. I found that spirituality and religious involvement can have a profound effect on physical and mental health through encouraging positive health behaviors and reducing stress by providing emotional and social support. Additionally, physicians need to respect that not all patients are comfortable with engaging spirituality as part of their healthcare plan. The fact that many do suggests that it is useful for physicians to have a carefully thought-out framework for approaching spiritual issues with their patients, especially when the physician and patient do not share the same spiritual background.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Lelwica
P29. The Importance of Vaccinations in Haiti
Over the past year I have been working on research alongside other French and nursing students. We intended to present this research to the people of Haiti this coming May, but due to political unrest the trip was canceled. My portion of the research focuses on the importance of vaccinations.
Mentored by: Dr. Gay Rawson
P30. Huntington's Chorea Patients at Increased Risk for Death by Suicide: A Synthesis of the Nursing Literature
Nurses caring for patients with Huntington's Chorea (HC) should understand that patients with HC are at an increased risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and death by suicide (Duijin, Giltay, Landwehrmeyer & Virjmoeth, 2018; Cruafurd et. al, 2013). Following an extensive literature review of 20 articles on HC that focused on suicidality, quality of life and end of life concerns, it was noted that suicide is the leading cause of death for these patients (Halpin, 2012). Psychopathology, depression and apathy are common characteristics of HC suicidality (Anderson et. al, 2014; Duijin, Hubers, Giltay, Giltay, Reedeker & Roos, 2011; Halpin, 2012). Clearly, there is a need for nurses to assess patients with HC for suicide risk (Cruafurd et. al, 2013; Wahlin, 2006). Further research should be done on risk factors and identifiers for death by suicide in HC patients suicide screening tools and treatment programs for those with suicidal ideation to detect and treat at-risk patients early.
Mentored by: Dr. Jennifer DeJong
P31. The Role of Custom Orthotics and Supportive Shoes in Treating Neuralgia Due to Disease State
This is my independent neuroscience research project that I have been working on this semester. I have been compiling a review paper that I have put together to explain why having the correct pair of shoes for your foot type, paired with custom orthotics can relieve minor pain from most biomechanical issues and disease states. I have compiled over 12 papers talking about the subject and have compiled a larger paper that has also manifested itself as a poster talking about the subject. My anticipated results is to get more people thinking about the types of shoes that they wear in their every day life and to inform them if they are not making the correct choice, that that is what may be causing or even exacerbating their foot pain.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P32. Gluten-Free Baking: A Guide to Gluten-Free Flours
Celiac disease is a genetic, autoimmune disease in which the immune system views gluten, the main protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, as harmful. When people with celiac disease consume gluten, the immune system causes inflammation that damages the small intestine. This damage prevents the small intestine from properly absorbing nutrients. There is no single gluten-free flour that can replicate all the beneficial functions of wheat flour, so gluten-free flour blends must be utilized to achieve structure, lightness, and good flavor. A popular misconception is that gluten-free baked goods are dense, dry, crumbly, and flavorless. A review of the literature reveals that the common alternative gluten-free flours differ in their baking properties so each flour included in a gluten-free flour blend must be carefully selected for optimal texture, moisture, and flavor of baked products. Furthermore, certain gluten-free flours are derived from whole grains and provide a wide range of vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, antioxidants, and other naturally occurring components. Gluten-free flours do tend to cost more than wheat or regular all-purpose flour. The baking properties, nutrition, cost, and availability of the various alternative gluten-free flours, in addition to individual taste preferences, must be considered when preparing a gluten-free flour blend. Consumers can use the information presented in this poster to prepare a gluten-free flour blend that complements their individual taste and nutrition needs. A registered dietitian may use this information to make an evidence-based recommendation to their clients.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Strang
P33. Relearning Paths: Measuring Time for Zebrafish to Find a New Spatial Route
Reilly Mach, Hannah Almlie, Irini Lagogianni, Bretton Badenoch, Hannah Paulson, Alexis Wanner, Zsofi Zelenak, McKinley Siegle, Elly Isaacson
Due to their ability to learn, adaptability, and ease of housing, zebrafish, (Danio rerio), are a useful animal model used extensively in research for answering a variety of questions in neuroscience. We are interested in measuring environmental preferences and learning in wild-type Danio rerio. From literature research and previous experiments in our lab, we have determined that Danio prefer the color green compared to red or yellow, and strongly prefer to shoal with other Danio than to be isolated. This led us to our hypothesis that after associating a green area of the tank with shoaling potential, Danio will adapt to a changed environment and spend more time on the previously less preferred red side of the tank if the red side became associated with tank mates and the green side became empty. To test this, we first placed a small group of Danio in a green quadrant of the tank, leaving the adjoining red quadrant empty. We then placed an individual test fish in a neutral zone of the tank and allowed it to explore the green and red sides of the tank for five minutes. We recorded the percent time spent in the green vs. red side of the tank. After several trials, we moved the group of fish to the red side of the tank, individually placed each test fish in the neutral zone, and recorded the time spent in each color chamber. We predict that social interaction will be a stronger preference than color choice shown by more time spent in the red than green zone when tank mates are present in the red zone.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P34. Going West for the Printed Image
Elaine Laliberte, Xenia Loredo-Hollon, Nadia Robb, Chelsea Steffes
The presenters accompanied Professor Heidi Goldberg to the 2018 Mid-America Print Council Conference at the University of Wyoming in Laramie in October, 2018. Each presenter participated in the conference print exchange and exhibition, "Go West". They reflected on the theme and approached it in concept and image individually, each pulling an edition of 12 hand-pulled prints using various printmaking techniques. The MAPC conference happens every other year. Attendees participate and learn from lectures and presentations, exhibitions, technical demonstrations, and product fairs. All of these factors contribute to students returning to their home institutions with loads of energy for the creation of new studio work inspired by meeting artists, seeing new ways of problem solving and image-making relating to printmaking. The experience can be pivotal in the development of serious work by those who make the trip. Here, students present proofs from the editions prepared for the conference, exchange editions, and the post-conference prints that were made considering significant influences as a result of participating in the events at the MAPC conference.
Mentored by: Heidi Goldberg
P35. Theoretical Exhibition: A Step Through Norwegian and Swedish Weaving and Wood Carving History
This is a theoretical exhibition that was created to show the history of Norway and Sweden's weaving and wood carving. This exhibit includes pieces from the 1700s through the 2000s, focusing on specific types of each that were common for people to be creating at the time. The mixture of old and new pieces show the traditions that continue today.
Mentored by: Dr. Susan Lee
P36. Women Soldiers in the Civil War
Andrea Ellefson, Cole Birch
The Civil War featured many distinguished women such as Harriet Tubman, Clara Barton, and Susan B. Anthony. Women during the Civil War are typically associated with roles such as spies, nurses, and maintaining the homefront. Yet, historians often times disregard the role that women played as soldiers, who fought on the front lines of the war under a male alias. Through the lens of diversity, this research will shed light on nontraditional roles that women such as Frances Clayton and Sarah Emma Edmonds embodied during the Civil War by fighting in disguise. Clayton and Edmonds, as well as hundreds of other female soldiers, maintained male impersonations on both sides of the war for up to several years before revealing their identity. This poster will feature primary visual sources that depict the choices that these women made. They should be recognized as pioneers for women today who are breaking the cycle into traditional male roles such as running for prominent political positions and military roles. In conducting this research, authoritative historical websites, scholarly articles, and novel publications were all used.
Mentored by: Dr. Richard Chapman
P37. Women of Hitchcock: The Strength Behind the Beauty
Throughout his films, Alfred Hitchcock carries through a number of reoccurring themes. One is that of his treatment of female characters. Consistent with the time period, upon first glance these female characters often appear to be weak side-characters of their male counterparts. This portrayal is visible in the 1958 thriller Vertigo. In this film, the female characters are displayed as weak and problematic, as well as the subjects of obsession and manipulation by the main, male character. However, looking past this initial perception, it's possible to see the strong, intelligent female characters that Hitchcock has created. Although they initially appear to be side-characters, in many of his films, such as Vertigo, they are often more vital than their male counterparts, as the main plotline revolves primarily around a male character's feelings toward a female character. Hitchcock also gives the women in his films a type of silent intuition and grace that shows the complexity and strength that they truly have. In his films, Hitchcock both demonstrates the sexist views of the time, and silently defies them. In this way, it is interesting to compare these complex roles to the fight for equality in the second-wave of feminism, during which this film was released. Much progress has been made on the front of equality toward women in the sixty years since, but there is still a long way to go. The movie Vertigo provides an interesting lens through which to consider the treatment of women both then and now.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P38. Beavers at Long Lake Exhibit Preferential Herbivory for Aspens
Riley Erlandson, Allison Marcus, Emily Weidner, Ashley Walla
Beavers are capable of immensely affecting the ecosystem they live in both positively and negatively, including Concordia's Long Lake Field Station. The North American beaver, or Castor canadensis, acts as an ecosystem engineer by raising and stabilizing water levels. This behavior increases access to resources in flooded areas, but beavers can also harm the ecosystem by cutting down and girdling trees. Although beavers are generalists, they typically eat woody vegetation. Beavers utilize a variety of tree species, but research has shown that they might prefer some species, such as aspens, over others. We measured a total of seven parallel 30 meter transects at Long Lake, Minnesota in two different locations. For each transect, every tree within 2 meters was recorded, and we categorized each tree as aspen or non-aspen as well as chewed or unchewed by beavers. After observing every tree in each transect, we compiled the data and performed a t-test to determine the significance of aspen herbivory rate. Aspens had a 55.9% higher herbivory rate than other tree species (t = 8.23, df = 12.86, p = 1.77e-6). Our data show that the correlation was not due to random chance and support the hypothesis that aspens are more highly affected because of beavers' preferential herbivory.
Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
P39. Exploring the Impact of Social Interaction vs. Isolation in a Zebrafish Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Riley Erlandson, Kenneth David, Yanick Tade, Kelly Noah, Emily Hilfers, Emily Hao
Danio rerio (zebrafish), are small, active freshwater fish employed across many areas of neuroscience research. Readily accessible and relatively easy to maintain in the laboratory, zebrafish share many features with mammalian models, and their curiosity and learning ability make them a useful model in behavioral neuroscience research. Importantly, Danio are a well-established model for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), displaying social behavior deficits similar to those characterized in ASD. Genetically modified Danio strains modelling ASD can be purchased from breeding labs. Alternatively, exposing embryonic Danio to low doses of valproic acid (VPA) induces social behavior deficiencies akin to ASD. Humans with ASD are much more likely to experience social isolation - defined as little to no regular contact with outside individuals - than individuals without ASD. However, it is unclear whether social isolation compounds negative behavioral effects of ASD. Environmental enrichment has been shown to ameliorate ASD-related symptoms in VPA rats. To compare and contrast social interaction and social isolation, we will use the VPA model of ASD in Danio embryos. Our goal is to determine whether social interaction can mitigate behavioral symptoms of ASD in Danio exposed to VPA, and to measure transcript expression of targeted genes between social and solitary fish. Results of this study may suggest that social isolation exacerbates adverse symptoms of ASD and that social interaction may diminish ASD symptoms.
Mentored by: Dr. Krys Strand
P40. Portrayal of Homosexuality in Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train
For my presentation, I will choose to tackle the topic of LGBTQ+ issues as they are portrayed in Alfred Hitchcock's films. The film I decided to focus on was his 1951 film Strangers on a Train. I plan to delve into the notion that Hitchcock uses the two main characters, Guy Haines and Bruno Antony, as the representation of American society's view of the homosexual lifestyle in the 1940s and 50s. I will dig further for direct evidence from the film, as well as drawing from the assigned chapters and outside resources. One idea I had to make this paper more unique would be to compare the techniques Hitchcock uses to portray homosexuality to some example of a contemporary portrayal. My working thesis is as follows: in his 1951 film Strangers on a Train, director Alfred Hitchcock portrays American society's view on the homosexual person and in doing so offers some social commentary on life in the 1940s and 50s.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P41. Queer Reflections in Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train
Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train plays immensely with the idea of doubles. From the tennis match to the way shots cut between similar element to the innuendos of the relationship between the two leading male characters, this feature cannot be ignored. But what if it is all a ruse? What if the dualism is really a mirror rather than a pair? What if we are looking at reflections the whole time? Bruno and Guy have been widely written about as having a subtextual romantic relationship; however, I think it is more than that: they are the same person under different circumstances, both a reflection of the queer male image that has been repressed. Through inquiry into the film, actors, and director's backgrounds; analysis of particular shots and scenes; and broader investigations into film, queer, and feminist theory I hope to more fully understand this film and its implications, both in its time and today.
Mentored by: Dr. Don Rice
P42. Comparing Gene-Editing Efficiency of CRISPR Cas9 and Cpf1 in Mammalian Cells
CRISPR is an effective tool for editing genomes, particularly with therapeutic potentials in mind. CXCR4 encodes the CXCR4 protein, which is highly expressed on cellular surfaces and plays an important role in signaling pathways. Furthermore, the CXCR4 protein is a co-receptor for HIV infection and it has been shown that mutation of its amino-terminus can allow T cells to resist HIV infection. Efficiency of editing CXCR4 using Cas9 is low. Here we aim to optimize precise modification in the CXCR4 gene using CRISPR proteins. Although the Cas9 CRISPR protein is possibly the most known, the Cpf1(Cas12a) class of CRISPR proteins has been shown to have greater specificity. CRISPR proteins recognizes different PAM regions and generate different cleavage patterns. Cas9 produces blunt ends whereas Cpf1 generates staggered ends. This cleavage pattern has potential to increase homology directed recombination and improve precision of genome modification. Efficiency of CRISPR effector proteins ability to cut the CXCR4 gene and insert an epitope tag into its N-terminus were compared. Cutting efficiencies were compared by gene expression and T7E1 assay, while knock-in efficiencies can be compared by epitope tag expression. We show that Cpf1 and Cas9 have comparable cutting efficiencies. Our results suggest Cpf1 and Cas9 may have different preference for donor DNA templates when performing HDR. We anticipate this efficiency and optimization can be applied to different cells, such as T and B cells, and can be used to generate pathogen-resistant cells and produce engineered immune cells which can specifically recognize pathogens.
Dr. Michael Farzan, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL
P43. Using Radio Telemetry to Assess the Behaviors and Habitat Use of Urban Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and Potential Competition with Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
Grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are commonly found in urban and suburban areas. The ecology of urban squirrels is not as well studied as that of rural squirrels but is gaining interest as urban dwellers exhibit positive attitudes towards grey squirrels. Studies in Europe found that the introduction of grey squirrels reduced the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) population in the area (Gurnell et al. 2004). The goal of this research was to observe the movements and behaviors of the grey squirrels on campus, with radio telemetry, to identify evidence of competition with red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) for resources and habitat. I hypothesized that grey squirrels are competing with red squirrels. I predicted that if grey squirrels were displacing red squirrels, thus leading to a decline in campus red squirrels, then I expected to see gray squirrels making more use of coniferous trees over time. I obtained competitive behavioral interactions of both squirrel types by observing the areas of campus that they were using, including types of trees and behavior. Radio collars allowed researchers to identify individual squirrels and observe movements. From the years 2014-2018 a total count of 349 red squirrel observations and 289 grey squirrel observations were collected. Red squirrels' locations were significantly associated with conifers and grey squirrels were more likely to be found in conifers during years that red squirrel numbers were diminished. This result is consistent with the concept of competitive release.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P44. Comparison of Small Mammal Communities on Restored and Remnant Prairies in Northwestern Minnesota
Emma Detloff, Chloe Whitten, Kendra Johnson, Micah Esala
Remnant prairies are one of the most endangered habitats in North America; approximately three percent of remnant prairies remain in Minnesota. To reestablish this important habitat, there have been restoration practices on prairie habitats by different public and private organizations to support and protect native prairie species. Small mammals act as seed dispersers for many prairie grasses, which are vital for the maintenance of plant diversity within the prairie. The conservation of native predator species is highly dependent on the small mammal populations because they serve as base prey species within the prairie ecosystem. We trapped small mammals on various restored and remnant prairies in northwestern Minnesota over the years of 2012 to 2018 collecting data during various seasons. Sites include Becker, Clay, Mahnomen, and Norman counties. The dominant species caught included Microtus pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus spp., and Ictidomys tridecemlineatus; rare species included Myodes gapperi, Zapus hudsonius, Sorex spp., and very rarely Blarina brevicauda. Through data analysis, it appears that restored and remnant prairies in these areas have similar patterns, although burn management cycles highly influence some species diversity. Data analysis includes burn year comparisons, individual comparisons, and Simpson's Reciprocal D for species richness comparisons. This data will allow us to determine if the current restoration practices are functioning to restore small mammal communities back to those found on remnant prairies.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P45. Cone Collection Behaviors on Tamiasciurus hudsonicus on an Urban College Campus
Jenna Stilwell, Kaylee Koski
American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) cache conifer cones in order to survive the cold winter months. Squirrel collection behavior may be based around cone availability in a particular squirrel's territory or show a preference to collect a certain size due to the energy costs of hoarding. Using optimal foraging theory, the idea that an animal's performance when foraging for food and resources is maximized by natural selection. A total of eight caches were examined in which cones were counted and measured to determine surface area and mass. With a subset of cones, seeds were counted to compare with surface area. To evaluate red squirrels foraging behavior, six locations of predominantly coniferous trees were surveyed around Concordia College's campus. A telescoping boom lift was used to access and randomly select cones. The length and width were measured and the surface area was calculated. A positive correlation was found between cone surface area, number of seeds, and the overall cone mass. Cones in caches were significantly smaller than cones measure in trees, and cones on the ground, not associated with caches, were significantly larger than cones in trees. Our analysis suggests that red squirrels are selecting for smaller, easier to transport cones to store in their caches while still maximizing seed energy per cone. The larger cones, while containing more seeds, might not be worth the effort to transport compared to the energetic payoff from concentrating on the smaller cones.
Mentored by: Dr. Joseph Whittaker
P46. To Survive or Thrive: How Prairie Burning Affects Oxeye
Mia Locquegnies, Linka Wintersteen, Mikenna Becker, Tadiwanashe Shamu
Restored prairies are a recent addition to the types of conservation efforts. A question that arises is how often restored prairies should be burned to replicate natural burning and ensure the health of native grasses and flowering plants. At Concordia College's Long Lake Field Station, we sampled two restored prairies that were planted with the same high forb seed, but had experienced different burning treatments--Prairie 1 was burned in the fall of 2017 while prairie 3 was last burned in 2013. We sampled one meter squared at random points in the prairies for the number of oxeye plants, the height of the central most plant, number of blooms per plant, litter depth, and soil moisture. This was repeated in 20 samples within each field. The results show no relation to burned and unburned to the blooms per plant or height of plant; even though there was a significant difference in the litter depth and soil moisture in both fields. There were observational differences between both fields that could be the impulse for new studies.
Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
P47. Tallgrass Prairie Dynamics are Moderated by Prescribed Burning: Case Study at Concordia's Long Lake Field Station
Emma Chandler, Marley Lund
Fire is a natural and essential mechanism for a healthy and diverse ecosystem. Unburned ecosystems are dominated by more competitive species that deplete the resources and contribute a large amount of biomass. Less competitive species often do not have the space or resources to grow, which decreases the potential for diversity in unburned prairies. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the 2018 spring burn on understory biomass and diversity at Concordia's Long Lake Field Station. Our hypotheses were that the spring burn would 1) decrease understory biomass 2) decrease the ratio of litter to total understory biomass and 3) increase understory species diversity. This project used the data from a long-term study on carbon dynamics of the Long Lake Field Station. The data used for this alternative study were biomass collections at 3 randomly placed subplots in 12 randomly placed plots throughout the 2018 spring burn prairies and the prairies last burned in 2014. We sorted the biomass by species and separated dead litter. The biomass collections were then dried and weighed. The burned plots had a lower average total biomass and a lower ratio of litter to total biomass than the unburned plots supporting our first two hypotheses. The burned prairies had a higher species richness (number of species). However, the species diversity determined by the Shannon diversity index was not significant. We also analyzed the biomass based on the species types and found more invasive species in the unburned prairies.
Mentored by: Dr. Althea ArchMiller
P48. Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Objects
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a means of 3D printing objects that is becoming more relevant in the recent years. This method of manufacturing utilizes a spool of plastic based filament to feed a heated extruder that is mounted on an xyz gantry. The extruder deposits this heated plastic in thin layers to build up an object. FDM printers are becoming cheaper and more widespread alternative to the common injection molding processes used in rapid prototyping and manufacturing. 3D printing allows for manufacturing more complicated hollow structures that were not possible to make with traditional injection molding processes. This allows the usage of different infills to manufacture parts that feature an optimized for structural integrity and weight optimization. FDM machines offer a wide range of different filament materials to produce objects in. During this research the mechanical properties of different plastics and composite materials were compared. Printer settings were configured to test and compare the effects of changing the print velocity and layer height. The samples were tested using a WP300 materials tester to compare the tensile strength and shear strength of each material.
Mentored by: Dr. Thelma Berquó
P49. Intracellular Signaling Adaptor Protein Localization in the Rat Supraoptic Nucleus
Chiso Nkenke, Glory Kom Petnkeu
We demonstrated previously that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes axon outgrowth from injured magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) via PI3K signaling. PI3K is an intracellular signaling molecule that phosphorylates and activates various other signaling molecules, that ultimately will affect the activities of a cell (i.e. promoting axon outgrowth). Thus, PI3K needs to interact and activate other signaling molecules, and these molecules can be other enzymes, receptors, or adaptor proteins. To date we do not know if PI3K signaling occurs in astrocytes or neurons in the SON, therefore, we sought to determine the cellular localization in the SON of signaling and adaptor molecules that PI3K interacts with. In order to do this, we paired specific antibodies for the signaling and adaptor proteins of interest with antibody markers for neurons and astrocytes using dual label fluorescence. Our results have demonstrated that within the SON the signaling molecules FAK and ILK-1 appear to be exclusively found in neurons while the adaptor protein paxillin appears to be present in both neurons and astrocytes. While these results are still preliminary, we have hypothesized that PI3K signaling occurs within neurons of the SON; thus, co-localization of these signaling molecules to neurons in the SON may allow PI3K signaling to occur.
Mentored by: Dr. Jason Askvig
P50. PI3K Subunits in the Rat Supraoptic Nucleus
Emily Weidner, Austin Grove, Victoria Ihry, Munir Isahak
We demonstrated previously that the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) undergoes a robust axonal sprouting response following unilateral transection of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract in a young, 35-day-old rat. However, no collateral sprouting occurs following axotomy in a 125-day-old rat. Our lab has in vitro evidence demonstrating the role of CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) in promoting process outgrowth via PI3K signaling. Thus, we compared the protein levels of the PI3K catalytic and regulatory subunits in the SON between 35- and 125-day rats. We found less protein of the catalytic domain, PI3K p110γ, in the 125-day rat SON; however, we did not observe changes in the other three catalytic domains nor the regulatory domains that we analyzed. Dual fluorescent studies demonstrated that all PI3K catalytic and regulatory subunits analyzed are localized to astrocytes and neurons in the SON. These data suggest that the lack of PI3K p110γ found in the 125-day rat SON may prevent the collateral sprouting response from occurring, but future studies need to be performed to confirm this hypothesis.
Mentored by: Dr. Jason Askvig
P51. Cisplatin Derivatives and the Ability to Target Cancer Cells
Cisplatin is a drug used to combat testicular and ovarian cancers with a high success rate. However, the side effects of this chemotherapy drug can be debilitating. The side effects are due to cisplatin's inability to differentiate between cancerous and healthy cells. Our goal was to synthesize a derivative that selectively targets only tumor cells and would therefore be less taxing on the body. It was hypothesized that with the help of folic acid and the water soluble phosphine, 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA), a derivative can be synthesized that preferentially attacks cancer cells. The cis-platin derivative was synthesized as follows. PTA was reacted a benzyl alcohol in acetone to form an ammonium salt. The resulting precipitate was then dissolved in DMSO along with folic acid, and linking reagents DCC and NHS. HPLC-grade acetone was then used to precipitate the folate conjugate from solution. The yellow precipitate was then reacted with a platinum chloride compound in methanol to yield the aforementioned cis-platin derivative. The spectroscopy results have been promising, yet the 3D conformation is yet to be determined.
Mentored by: Dr. Donald Krogstad
P52. Synthesis of Folic Acid Derivative of Cisplatin
The purpose of this research is to develop a water-soluble medication to specifically target cancer cells. Testicular cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin, a popular chemotherapy drug and the focus of this research, treats this form of cancer with a 95% survival rate. While cisplatin is effective, it has many side effects including but not limited to hair loss, nausea, and loss of appetite. By replacing the existing ligands of cisplatin with a combination of the water-soluble phosphine 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and folic acid the drug's medical properties change. In order to attach the PTA and folic acid, the PTA was reacted with p-(chloromethyl)phenol. The resulting compound was reacted with folic acid and an ester was formed. Finally, the folic ester was reacted with cisplatin and the final product was isolated. Each synthesized compound was analyzed using various methods including NMR, GCMS, and IR. In order to understand the medicinal properties of the newly developed drug, further research is required.
Mentored by: Dr. Donald Krogstad
P53. Synthesis of Folate Derivatives of Cisplatin and RAPTA
Jase Olson, Anh Nguyen
Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. In recent decades, tremendous progress has been made to cure cancer. Specifically, developing anti-cancer drugs that can target cancer cells to replace conventional chemotherapies is the goal of many scientists in the fight against cancer. Different pharmaceutical research, which deals with anti-cancer drugs, works with heavy metals such as ruthenium, palladium, silver, or platinum. Previous research has shown that these metals can be linked to water-soluble ligands such as the widely researched, "cage-like" phosphine 1,3,5-triaza-7- phosphaadamantane (PTA). This project focused on the development of two new forms of the current anti-cancer drugs, cisplatin and RAPTA. The newly synthesized potential drugs contain the PTA complexes that possess a folic acid derivative that are able to bind to the receptors exclusive to cancerous cells.
Mentored by: Dr. Donald Krogstad
P54. Determining the Effects of Prescribed Field Burns on Milkweed Density and Trait Investment at Long Lake Field Station
David Fehr, Cole Hoscheid, Kelly Noah, Brandon Ciak
Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca; Apocynaceae) is a perennial grassland species common to ditches, gardens, and prairies of North America that acts as crucial component of the monarch butterfly life cycle. Due to recent declines in monarch butterfly populations, milkweed abundance and conservation has become a principal research area. Prescribed burns have been conducted to improve wildlife habitat, boost pasture productivity, and enhance native plant communities. At Concordia College's Long Lake Field Station, researchers investigated the effects of prescribed burns on prairie milkweed density and resource allocation through trait investments. Milkweed density, measured using transects, was obtained in both a burned and unburned prairie. Similarly, plant investments such as growth and reproduction were investigated through traits including: plant height, seed pod length and mass, and number of seed pods per plants. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in burned and unburned fields with plant traits. There were significant relationships between specific milkweed traits in both fields regardless of treatment. These relationships included plant height versus the number of seed pods in burned fields (F = 4.35, d.f. = 24, p < 0.05), seed pod mass versus seed pod length in unburned fields (F = 18.08, d.f. = 24, p < 0.05), and seed pod mass versus the number of seed pods in unburned fields (F = 6.91, d.f. = 24, p < 0.05). Understanding the impact of prescribed burns on the common milkweed could play a critical role in further monarch butterfly conservation efforts.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Marko
P55. Phenotypic Plasticity of Potamogeton illinoensis in Relation to Lake Depth at Long Lake
Samantha Engrav, Sofia Palme, Liv Overby
Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a crucial aspect of aquatic environments, providing food and habitat for a number of vertebrate and invertebrate species. A key characteristic of SAV is the phenotypic plasticity- the ability of one genome to produce more than one phenotypic response based on the environment surrounding the macrophyte. Our research attempted to identify if water depth has a direct effect on the morphology of the submerged aquatic macrophyte (SAV) Potamogeton illinoensis. We assessed whether variation in water depth induced a variation in morphology due to phenotypic plasticity, particularly in a freshwater environment. Phenotypic plasticity can ultimately alter the composition and health of an aquatic environment, and thus is important to understand when looking at such ecosystems. Potamogeton illinoensis specimens were collected from various water depths between .5 and 2.0 meters from two shorelines in Long Lake in Becker County, MN with a plant rake and by hand. These specimens were then analyzed for leaf area, plant height, and the number of leaves per centimeter of plant. These data were then analyzed via a linear regression. We found that lake depth does not have a distinct effect on SAV morphology. Further research on this topic could focus on other factors that might affect SAV morphology, such as sediment, climate conditions, and herbivorous animal populations, factors that have the potential to alter overall ecosystem makeup. In addition to this, other studies looked at a greater range of depths, which could have altered the comparison of our results.
Mentored by: Dr. Michelle Marko